Shallow CO2 seeps for ocean acidification research: Geochemistry of two sites in Shikine Island and potential of the research in Japan. Agostini, S., Wada, S., Kon, K., Omori, A., Kohtsuka, H., Fujimura, H., Tsuchiya, Y., Sato, T., Shinagawa, H., Yamada, Y., & Inaba, K. Regional Studies in Marine Science.
Shallow CO2 seeps for ocean acidification research: Geochemistry of two sites in Shikine Island and potential of the research in Japan [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Shallow CO2 seeps, where CO2 gas is venting underwater, offer great potential for studies into the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level. To our knowledge, only two tropical system and two temperate systems of such seeps have been described worldwide. Here we describe two new temperate systems: the Mikama Bay and Ashitsuke sites, located on Shikine Island, Japan. The Mikama Bay site is located in a shallow bay. Investigation of the gas and water chemistry showed that the gas contained 98% CO2 and up to 90 ppm H2S. Total alkalinity was constant in time and space with an average of 2265±10 μ mol kg−1. Mapping of Eh and pH showed that the low pH zones were the largest when currents were moderate. Under moderate currents, Eh values were globally higher and total sulfides concentration lower, supporting that a longer residence time of the bay water allow the oxidation of the sulfides to sulfates. Zones suitable for acidification studies: with a pH lower than 8.0, low saturation state of calcite and aragonite, and non-detectable sulfide concentration, can be defined a few meters from the main venting zone. The second site, Ashitsuke, is located in the inter-tidal zone on a shore composed of boulders. Several areas showed reduced pH sometimes restricted to a few meters and up to 20 m long along the shoreline. Temperature was higher in some of the reduced pH zones suggesting the presence of hot springs in addition to vents. This paper also highlights the need for discovering additional CO2 seeps, which by their nature often lack comparable replicates and can be confounded by factors other than CO2. In this regard, Japan offers great potential as it is home to numerous active volcanoes, representing potential venting sites in climates ranging from tropical to sub-polar.
@article{ agostini_shallow_????,
  title = {Shallow {CO}2 seeps for ocean acidification research: {Geochemistry} of two sites in {Shikine} {Island} and potential of the research in {Japan}},
  issn = {2352-4855},
  shorttitle = {Shallow {CO}2 seeps for ocean acidification research},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485515000298},
  doi = {10.1016/j.rsma.2015.07.004},
  abstract = {Shallow CO2 seeps, where CO2 gas is venting underwater, offer great potential for studies into the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level. To our knowledge, only two tropical system and two temperate systems of such seeps have been described worldwide. Here we describe two new temperate systems: the Mikama Bay and Ashitsuke sites, located on Shikine Island, Japan. The Mikama Bay site is located in a shallow bay. Investigation of the gas and water chemistry showed that the gas contained 98% CO2 and up to 90 ppm H2S. Total alkalinity was constant in time and space with an average of 2265±10 μ mol kg−1. Mapping of Eh and pH showed that the low pH zones were the largest when currents were moderate. Under moderate currents, Eh values were globally higher and total sulfides concentration lower, supporting that a longer residence time of the bay water allow the oxidation of the sulfides to sulfates. Zones suitable for acidification studies: with a pH lower than 8.0, low saturation state of calcite and aragonite, and non-detectable sulfide concentration, can be defined a few meters from the main venting zone. The second site, Ashitsuke, is located in the inter-tidal zone on a shore composed of boulders. Several areas showed reduced pH sometimes restricted to a few meters and up to 20 m long along the shoreline. Temperature was higher in some of the reduced pH zones suggesting the presence of hot springs in addition to vents. This paper also highlights the need for discovering additional CO2 seeps, which by their nature often lack comparable replicates and can be confounded by factors other than CO2. In this regard, Japan offers great potential as it is home to numerous active volcanoes, representing potential venting sites in climates ranging from tropical to sub-polar.},
  urldate = {2015-07-24TZ},
  journal = {Regional Studies in Marine Science},
  author = {Agostini, Sylvain and Wada, Shigeki and Kon, Koetsu and Omori, Akihito and Kohtsuka, Hisanori and Fujimura, Hiroyuki and Tsuchiya, Yasutaka and Sato, Toshihiko and Shinagawa, Hideo and Yamada, Yutaro and Inaba, Kazuo},
  keywords = {CO2 seep, Geochemistry, Japan, Ocean acidification, Temperate Pacific Ocean}
}

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