Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents. Alrayes, A.; Alowayshiq, H.; Altamimi, H.; Alangari, R.; and Benajiba, N. The North African Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 02(04):75-80, 2018.
Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents [pdf]Paper  Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Background : Breakfast consumption is labelled as the most important meal of the day. It might be of significant importance for adolescent students as it might influence their short-term memory, performance and mood. However, the prevalence of skipping breakfast among adolescents in Saudi Arabia is high. Aims: To investigate the association between breakfast intake and short-term memory, performance and mood among Saudi female adolescents. Methods and Material: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary female School (Riyadh) involving 170 (15-19 years). Structured questionnaires on breakfast eating habits, student performance at school, a standardized questionnaire mood and feeling and a standardized short-term memory test. Statistical analysis used Chi2 test and ANOVA test to assess the association between breakfast intake and the studied parameter. Results: Only 39% of participants keep their daily breakfast. Frequency of breakfast intake was strongly and positively associated with improved performance (R2=0.87, p<0.001), and to short-term memory score (R2=0.5, p<0.05). However, no correlation between daily breakfast intake and mood was obtained. Conclusions: This study confirmed the high rate of skipping breakfast among Saudi female adolescents, and provides further evidence on the beneficial effect of breakfast intake on student’s short-term memory as well as the school performance. Nutrition education program targeting this population should be implemented to enhance its awareness on the importance of breakfast intake. Keywords: Breakfast intake, mood, short-term memory, performance, Saudi female adolescents.
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 title = {Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents},
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 pages = {75-80},
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 abstract = {Background : Breakfast consumption is labelled as the most important meal of the day. It might be of significant importance for adolescent students as it might influence their short-term memory, performance and mood. However, the prevalence of skipping breakfast among adolescents in Saudi Arabia is high. Aims: To investigate the association between breakfast intake and short-term memory, performance and mood among Saudi female adolescents. Methods and Material: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary female School (Riyadh) involving 170 (15-19 years). Structured questionnaires on breakfast eating habits, student performance at school, a standardized questionnaire mood and feeling and a standardized short-term memory test. Statistical analysis used Chi2 test and ANOVA test to assess the association between breakfast intake and the studied parameter. Results: Only 39% of participants keep their daily breakfast. Frequency of breakfast intake was strongly and positively associated with improved performance (R2=0.87, p<0.001), and to short-term memory score (R2=0.5, p<0.05).  However, no correlation between daily breakfast intake and mood was obtained. Conclusions: This study confirmed the high rate of skipping breakfast among Saudi female adolescents, and provides further evidence on the beneficial effect of breakfast intake on student’s short-term memory as well as the school performance. Nutrition education program targeting this population should be implemented to enhance its awareness on the importance of breakfast intake.

Keywords: Breakfast intake, mood, short-term memory, performance, Saudi female adolescents.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Alrayes, Amal and Alowayshiq, Hajar and Altamimi, Hind and Alangari, Reem and Benajiba, Nada},
 journal = {The North African Journal of Food and Nutrition Research},
 number = {04}
}