Effect of color Doppler system on the twinkling sign associated with urinary tract calculi. Aytaç, S. K. and Ozcan, H. Journal of clinical ultrasound: JCU, 27(8):433--439, October, 1999. 00000
abstract   bibtex   
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the color Doppler system on the artifact known as the "twinkling sign." METHODS: Sixty-five patients with at least 1 urinary tract calculus seen on sonography were examined with color Doppler sonography. Two color Doppler systems of 2 different generations were used. Examinations included gray-scale, color Doppler, power Doppler, and spectral evaluations of the calculus with various settings of Doppler gain, velocity range, color filter, focal depth, and acoustic power. RESULTS: A color artifact was present within and/or distal to 29 (39%) of 75 urinary tract calculi when the old generation system was used. Use of the new generation system produced this color artifact within and/or distal to 72 (96%) of the urinary tract calculi. The intensity of the artifact was affected by the acoustic output of the equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The twinkling sign is an artifact that can not only lead to misdiagnosis of vascular flow within a structure but also help differentiate a very small stone from other small echogenic structures when later generation "all-digital" systems are used. The color sensitivity of the system and acoustic power used are important technical factors that affect the production of this artifact.
@article{aytac_effect_1999,
	title = {Effect of color {Doppler} system on the twinkling sign associated with urinary tract calculi},
	volume = {27},
	issn = {0091-2751},
	abstract = {PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the color Doppler system on the artifact known as the "twinkling sign."
METHODS: Sixty-five patients with at least 1 urinary tract calculus seen on sonography were examined with color Doppler sonography. Two color Doppler systems of 2 different generations were used. Examinations included gray-scale, color Doppler, power Doppler, and spectral evaluations of the calculus with various settings of Doppler gain, velocity range, color filter, focal depth, and acoustic power.
RESULTS: A color artifact was present within and/or distal to 29 (39\%) of 75 urinary tract calculi when the old generation system was used. Use of the new generation system produced this color artifact within and/or distal to 72 (96\%) of the urinary tract calculi. The intensity of the artifact was affected by the acoustic output of the equipment.
CONCLUSIONS: The twinkling sign is an artifact that can not only lead to misdiagnosis of vascular flow within a structure but also help differentiate a very small stone from other small echogenic structures when later generation "all-digital" systems are used. The color sensitivity of the system and acoustic power used are important technical factors that affect the production of this artifact.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {8},
	journal = {Journal of clinical ultrasound: JCU},
	author = {Aytaç, S. K. and Ozcan, H.},
	month = oct,
	year = {1999},
	pmid = {10477885},
	note = {00000 },
	keywords = {Artifacts, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color, Urinary Calculi},
	pages = {433--439}
}
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