Pronouns, prosody, and the Discourse Anaphora Weighting Approach. Balogh, J. E. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego.
abstract   bibtex   
The focus of this dissertation is how prosody, in particular pitch accent, affects pronoun referent resolution. First, some influential theories of pronoun and reflexive referent resolution are reviewed, followed by separate work on the representation and meaning of prosody. Some proposals integrating the two are presented, but what becomes apparent is that there is a large collection of data for which these theories do not account. Further, the paucity of research devoted to prosody's real-time influence on pronouns underscores the need for more research and a better theory recognizing prosody's role. Two sets of experiments are presented that investigate pitch accent's effect on pronoun referent resolution. The first set explores the role of focus stress when placed on one of two potential referents of a pronoun. The results show that focus stress significantly impacts pronoun interpretation, but in subtle ways. Pitch accent serves as a secondary influence that interacts with other, more powerful forces including preference for the subject and theta roles. The first two experiments provide data to refine a hypothesis that predicts a specific pattern of results. The following three experiments validate the hypothesis using different sentence structures. The second set of experiments deals with pitch accent used for contrastive stress. These experiments use a Cross-Modal Lexical Priming paradigm with three- sentence discourses to map out the time course of prosody and its impact on pronoun referent assignment. Based on data from four different probe points, the experimental results show that pitch accent as contrastive stress is a fast-acting cue that constrains potential referent activation at an early stage of processing. The results also suggest that contrastive stress triggers a second pass interpretation several hundred milliseconds after the pronoun. Given these results, I propose a unified theory of the real-time processing of discourse anaphora in English, called the Discourse Anaphora Weighting Approach (DAWA). The DAWA takes into account the data up to this point and promotes the role of prosody as an important factor in coreference.
@phdthesis{balogh_pronouns_2003,
	Author = {Balogh, Jennifer Elaine},
	Date = {2003},
	Date-Modified = {2016-09-25 21:24:11 +0000},
	File = {Attachment:files/787/Balogh - 2003 - Pronouns, prosody, and the Discourse Anaphora Weighting Approach.pdf:application/pdf},
	Keywords = {anaphora, discourse, phonetics, pragmatics, prosody},
	School = {University of California, San Diego},
	Title = {Pronouns, prosody, and the Discourse Anaphora Weighting Approach},
	Abstract = {The focus of this dissertation is how prosody, in particular pitch accent, affects pronoun referent resolution. First, some influential theories of pronoun and reflexive referent resolution are reviewed, followed by separate work on the representation and meaning of prosody. Some proposals integrating the two are presented, but what becomes apparent is that there is a large collection of data for which these theories do not account. Further, the paucity of research devoted to prosody's real-time influence on pronouns underscores the need for more research and a better theory recognizing prosody's role. Two sets of experiments are presented that investigate pitch accent's effect on pronoun referent resolution. The first set explores the role of focus stress when placed on one of two potential referents of a pronoun. The results show that focus stress significantly impacts pronoun interpretation, but in subtle ways. Pitch accent serves as a secondary influence that interacts with other, more powerful forces including preference for the subject and theta roles. The first two experiments provide data to refine a hypothesis that predicts a specific pattern of results. The following three experiments validate the hypothesis using different sentence structures. The second set of experiments deals with pitch accent used for contrastive stress. These experiments use a Cross-Modal Lexical Priming paradigm with three- sentence discourses to map out the time course of prosody and its impact on pronoun referent assignment. Based on data from four different probe points, the experimental results show that pitch accent as contrastive stress is a fast-acting cue that constrains potential referent activation at an early stage of processing. The results also suggest that contrastive stress triggers a second pass interpretation several hundred milliseconds after the pronoun. Given these results, I propose a unified theory of the real-time processing of discourse anaphora in English, called the Discourse Anaphora Weighting Approach (DAWA). The DAWA takes into account the data up to this point and promotes the role of prosody as an important factor in coreference.},
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