When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus. Beaver, D. I; Clark, B. Z; Flemming, E. S; Jager, T F.; and Wolters, M. K Language, 83(2):245-276.
When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
A second-occurrence (SO) focus is the semantic focus of a focus-sensitive operator (e.g. only), but is a repeat of an earlier focused occurrence. We report on the first systematic production and perception experiments to show that SO foci occurring after a nuclear accent are, as Rooth (1996b) has claimed, prosodically marked. We find that (i) there is no mean pitch rise on SO foci, (ii) SO foci are marked by longer duration and greater energy, and (iii) listeners are able to detect the difference between SO foci and nonfoci. On the basis of these results, we argue that SO focus is compatible with theories of focus interpretation that it has been claimed to contradict.
@article{beaver_when_2007,
	Author = {Beaver, David I and Clark, Brady Z and Flemming, Edward S and Jager, T Florian and Wolters, Maria K},
	Date = {2007},
	Date-Modified = {2016-10-02 08:49:00 +0000},
	File = {Attachment:files/984/Beaver et al. - 2007 - When semantics meets phonetics Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus.pdf:application/pdf},
	Issn = {00978507 (ISSN)},
	Journal = {Language},
	Keywords = {phonetics, prosody, focus, semantics, acoustic phonetics},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {245-276},
	Title = {When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus},
	Url = {https://webspace.utexas.edu/dib97/wsmp.pdf http://www.bcs.rochester.edu/people/fjaeger/papers/E_BeaverETAL07_SOF.pdf http://www.bcs.rochester.edu/people/fjaeger/papers/E_BeaverETAL07_SOF.pdf},
	Volume = {83},
	Abstract = {A second-occurrence (SO) focus is the semantic focus of a focus-sensitive operator (e.g. only), but is a repeat of an earlier focused occurrence. We report on the first systematic production and perception experiments to show that SO foci occurring after a nuclear accent are, as Rooth (1996b) has claimed, prosodically marked. We find that (i) there is no mean pitch rise on SO foci, (ii) SO foci are marked by longer duration and greater energy, and (iii) listeners are able to detect the difference between SO foci and nonfoci. On the basis of these results, we argue that SO focus is compatible with theories of focus interpretation that it has been claimed to contradict.},
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