Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bialystok, E Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(1):3-11.
Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The present paper summarizes research showing that bilingualism affects linguistic and cognitive performance across the lifespan. The effect on linguistic performance is generally seen as a deficit in which bilingual children control a smaller vocabulary than their monolingual peers and bilingual adults perform more poorly on rapid lexical retrieval tasks. The effect on cognitive performance is to enhance executive functioning and to protect against the decline of executive control in aging. These effects interact to produce a complex pattern regarding the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Memory tasks based primarily on verbal recall are performed more poorly by bilinguals but memory tasks based primarily on executive control are performed better by bilinguals. Speculations regarding the mechanism responsible for these effects are described.
@article{bialystok_bilingualism:_2008,
	Author = {Bialystok, E},
	Date = {2008},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:06 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1017/S1366728908003477},
	File = {Attachment:files/1139/Bialystok - 2008 - Bilingualism The good, the bad, and the indifferent.pdf:application/pdf},
	Journal = {Bilingualism: Language and Cognition},
	Keywords = {bilingualism},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {3-11},
	Title = {Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent},
	Url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003477},
	Volume = {12},
	Abstract = {The present paper summarizes research showing that bilingualism affects linguistic and cognitive performance across the lifespan. The effect on linguistic performance is generally seen as a deficit in which bilingual children control a smaller vocabulary than their monolingual peers and bilingual adults perform more poorly on rapid lexical retrieval tasks. The effect on cognitive performance is to enhance executive functioning and to protect against the decline of executive control in aging. These effects interact to produce a complex pattern regarding the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Memory tasks based primarily on verbal recall are performed more poorly by bilinguals but memory tasks based primarily on executive control are performed better by bilinguals. Speculations regarding the mechanism responsible for these effects are described.},
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