Place coding of vowel formants for cochlear implant patients. Blamey, P J and Clark, G M The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 88(2):667-73, August.
Place coding of vowel formants for cochlear implant patients [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Four multiple-channel cochlear implant patients were tested with synthesized versions of the words "hid, head, had, hud, hod, hood" containing 1, 2, or 3 formants, and with a natural 2-formant version of the same words. The formant frequencies were encoded in terms of the positions of electrical stimulation in the cochlea. Loudness, duration, and fundamental frequency were kept fixed within the synthetic stimulus sets. The average recognition scores were 47%, 61%, 62%, and 79% for the synthesized 1-, 2-, and 3-format vowels and the natural vowels, respectively. These scores showed that the place coding of the first and second formant frequencies accounted for a large part of the vowel recognition of cochlear implant patients using these coding schemes. The recognition of the natural stimuli was significantly higher than recognition of the synthetic stimuli, indicating that extra cues such as loudness, duration, and fundamental frequency contributed to recognition of the spoken words.
@article{blamey_place_1990,
	Author = {Blamey, P J and Clark, G M},
	Date = {1990},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:06 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1121/1.399770},
	Issn = {0001-4966},
	Journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
	Keywords = {audiology, clinical, clinical phonetics, cochlear implant, hearing impairment, segmental, speech perception, vowels},
	Month = aug,
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {667-73},
	Pmid = {2212290},
	Title = {Place coding of vowel formants for cochlear implant patients},
	Url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2212290},
	Volume = {88},
	Abstract = {Four multiple-channel cochlear implant patients were tested with synthesized versions of the words "hid, head, had, hud, hod, hood" containing 1, 2, or 3 formants, and with a natural 2-formant version of the same words. The formant frequencies were encoded in terms of the positions of electrical stimulation in the cochlea. Loudness, duration, and fundamental frequency were kept fixed within the synthetic stimulus sets. The average recognition scores were 47\%, 61\%, 62\%, and 79\% for the synthesized 1-, 2-, and 3-format vowels and the natural vowels, respectively. These scores showed that the place coding of the first and second formant frequencies accounted for a large part of the vowel recognition of cochlear implant patients using these coding schemes. The recognition of the natural stimuli was significantly higher than recognition of the synthetic stimuli, indicating that extra cues such as loudness, duration, and fundamental frequency contributed to recognition of the spoken words.},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2212290},
	Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.399770}}
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