Spectral analysis of sung vowels. II. The effect of fundamental frequency on vowel spectra. Bloothooft, G. and Plomp, R. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(4):1580-1588.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
One-third-oct bandfilter spectra of nine different vowels, each obtained as the average spectrum of vowels sung by professional male and female singers in nine modes of singing, were obtained at six fundamental frequencies Fo, ranging from 98-880 Hz. For Fo = 98 Hz both an empirical and a theoretical comparison were made between the representation of vowels in the formant space and the representation in the spectrum space. A first-order correspondence between both approaches was demonstrated. The vowel configurations in the spectrum space showed that, apart from differences in the grand-average spectrum, 1 for Fo \textless 220 Hz, vowel configurations were similar for males and females; 2 for Fo -- 392 Hz, the variability in dimensions related to F* and F2 was smaller than for lower Fo values, and variability related to F* in male falsetto register was greater than in modal register vowel spectra were similar in male falsetto register and female singing; 3 for Fo -- 659 Hz, the vowel configuration had shrunk to clusters of front and back vowels; and 4 for Fo -- 880 Hz, vowel differences were only marginal. The relation between the average sound level of the so-called singer's formant and Fo appeared to be vowel dependent. Up to Fo -- 392 Hz, the singer's formant was on the average equally prominent for male and female singers, but for higher Fo its level, relative to overall sound-pressure level, dropped for females. Differences between average spectra of sung and spoken vowels are discusse
@article{bloothooft_spectral_1985,
	Author = {Bloothooft, Gerrit and Plomp, Reinier},
	Date = {1985},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:06 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1121/1.392001},
	Issn = {00014966},
	Journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
	Keywords = {acoustic phonetics, phonetics, segmental, singing voice, vowels},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {1580-1588},
	Title = {Spectral analysis of sung vowels. II. The effect of fundamental frequency on vowel spectra},
	Volume = {77},
	Abstract = {One-third-oct bandfilter spectra of nine different vowels, each obtained as the average spectrum of vowels sung by professional male and female singers in nine modes of singing, were obtained at six fundamental frequencies Fo, ranging from 98-880 Hz. For Fo = 98 Hz both an empirical and a theoretical comparison were made between the representation of vowels in the formant space and the representation in the spectrum space. A first-order correspondence between both approaches was demonstrated. The vowel configurations in the spectrum space showed that, apart from differences in the grand-average spectrum, 1 for Fo {\textless} 220 Hz, vowel configurations were similar for males and females; 2 for Fo -- 392 Hz, the variability in dimensions related to F* and F2 was smaller than for lower Fo values, and variability related to F* in male falsetto register was greater than in modal register vowel spectra were similar in male falsetto register and female singing; 3 for Fo -- 659 Hz, the vowel configuration had shrunk to clusters of front and back vowels; and 4 for Fo -- 880 Hz, vowel differences were only marginal. The relation between the average sound level of the so-called singer's formant and Fo appeared to be vowel dependent. Up to Fo -- 392 Hz, the singer's formant was on the average equally prominent for male and female singers, but for higher Fo its level, relative to overall sound-pressure level, dropped for females. Differences between average spectra of sung and spoken vowels are discusse},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.392001}}
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