Forensic voice identification in France. Boë, L. Speech Communication, 31(2-3):205-224, June.
Forensic voice identification in France [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Among the sources of information used in legal identification, fingerprints and genetic data seem to provide a high degree of reliability. It is possible to evaluate the probability of confusing two individuals who might possess the same fingerprint characteristics or the same genetic markers, and to quantify the risk of a false alarm. By their very nature, these data do not vary significantly over the course of time, and they cannot be modified by a suspect. The erroneous metaphoric term ``voiceprint'' leads many people (not only the general public) to believe that the voice is as reliable as the papillary ridges of the fingertips. This is not the case. According to present evidence, certain magistrates in France attach far too much importance to analyses of the voice which, along with other indices, should not be used except to help in directing an investigation. In this communication, the author will detail the conditions under which, in France, voice analyses are carried out in the course of an investigation undertaken by the law, and will attempt to define the limits of this protocol, and the difficulty (and impossibility) of producing a reliable statistical test. A historical review will then be presented of the discussions initiated by and position statements adopted by the French speech community since 1900. Finally some ideas and proposals will be put forward in conclusion, which might be discussed by specialists in speech in collaboration with the police, the gendarmerie, and the magistrature, on a national, European, and international level, to advance the search for legal proof of identification within a scientific framework, and to end up with well-defined protocols.
@article{boe_forensic_2000,
	Author = {Boë, Louis-Jean},
	Date = {2000},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:06 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1016/S0167-6393(99)00079-5},
	Issn = {01676393},
	Journal = {Speech Communication},
	Keywords = {forensic, phonetics},
	Month = jun,
	Number = {2-3},
	Pages = {205-224},
	Title = {Forensic voice identification in France},
	Url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167639399000795 http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167639399000795},
	Volume = {31},
	Abstract = {Among the sources of information used in legal identification, fingerprints and genetic data seem to provide a high degree of reliability. It is possible to evaluate the probability of confusing two individuals who might possess the same fingerprint characteristics or the same genetic markers, and to quantify the risk of a false alarm. By their very nature, these data do not vary significantly over the course of time, and they cannot be modified by a suspect. The erroneous metaphoric term ``voiceprint'' leads many people (not only the general public) to believe that the voice is as reliable as the papillary ridges of the fingertips. This is not the case. According to present evidence, certain magistrates in France attach far too much importance to analyses of the voice which, along with other indices, should not be used except to help in directing an investigation. In this communication, the author will detail the conditions under which, in France, voice analyses are carried out in the course of an investigation undertaken by the law, and will attempt to define the limits of this protocol, and the difficulty (and impossibility) of producing a reliable statistical test. A historical review will then be presented of the discussions initiated by and position statements adopted by the French speech community since 1900. Finally some ideas and proposals will be put forward in conclusion, which might be discussed by specialists in speech in collaboration with the police, the gendarmerie, and the magistrature, on a national, European, and international level, to advance the search for legal proof of identification within a scientific framework, and to end up with well-defined protocols.},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167639399000795%20http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167639399000795},
	Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6393(99)00079-5}}
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