Forensic speech and audio analysis forensic linguistics. 1998 to 2001. A Review. Broeders, A P A In 13th INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium, pages D2-53 - D2-84, Lyon, France, 16-19 October, 2001.
Forensic speech and audio analysis forensic linguistics. 1998 to 2001. A Review [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Although the development of state-of-the-art speaker recognition systems has shown considerable progress in the last decade, performance levels of these systems do not as yet seem to warrant large-scale introduction in anything other than relatively low-risk applications. Conditions typical of the forensic context such as differences in recording equipment and transmission channels, the presence of background noise and of variation due to differences in communicative context continue to pose a major challenge. Consequently, the impact of automatic speaker recognition technology on the forensic scene has been relatively modest and forensic speaker identification practice remains heavily dominated by the use of a wide variety of largely subjective procedures. While recent developments in the interpretation of the evidential value of forensic evidence clearly favour methods that make it possible for results to be expressed in terms of a likelihood ratio, unlike automatic procedures, traditional methods in the field of speaker identification do not generally meet this requirement. However, conclusions in the form of a binary yes/no-decision or a qualified statement of the probability of the hypothesis rather than the evidence are increasingly criticised for being logically flawed. Against this background, the need to put alternative validation procedures in place is becoming more widely accepted. Although speaker identification by earwitnesses differs in some important respects from the much more widely studied field of eyewitness identification, there are sufficient parallels between the two for speaker identification by earwitnesses to benefit greatly from a close study of the guidelines that have been proposed for the administration of line-ups in the visual domain. Some of the central notions are briefly discussed. Rapid technical developments in the world of telecommunications in which speech and data are increasingly transmitted through the same communication channels may soon blunt the efficacy of traditional telephone interception as an investigative and evidential tool. The gradual shift from analogue to digital recording media and the increasingly widespread availability of digital sound processing equipment as well as its ease of operation make certain types of manipulation of audio recordings comparatively easy to perform. If done competently, such manipulation may leave no traces and may therefore well be impossible to detect. Authorship attribution is another forensic area that has had a relatively chequered history. The rapid increase in the use of electronic writing media including e-mail, sms, and the use of ink jet printers at the expense of typewritten and to a lesser extent hand-written texts reduces the opportunities of authorship attribution by means of traditional document examination techniques and may create a greater demand for linguistic expertise in this area. A survey is provided of ongoing work in the area, based on reactions to a questionnaire sent out earlier this year.
@inproceedings{broeders_forensic_2001,
	Address = {Lyon, France, 16-19 October, 2001},
	Author = {Broeders, A P A},
	Booktitle = {13th INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium},
	Date = {2001},
	Date-Modified = {2016-09-24 18:55:59 +0000},
	File = {Attachment:files/1575/Broeders - 2001 - Forensic speech and audio analysis forensic linguistics. 1998 to 2001. A Review.pdf:application/pdf},
	Keywords = {forensic, phonetics},
	Pages = {D2-53 - D2-84},
	Title = {Forensic speech and audio analysis forensic linguistics. 1998 to 2001. A Review},
	Url = {http://www.taracentar.hr/attachments/interpol_forensic.pdf},
	Abstract = {Although the development of state-of-the-art speaker recognition systems has shown considerable progress in the last decade, performance levels of these systems do not as yet seem to warrant large-scale introduction in anything other than relatively low-risk applications. Conditions typical of the forensic context such as differences in recording equipment and transmission channels, the presence of background noise and of variation due to differences in communicative context continue to pose a major challenge. Consequently, the impact of automatic speaker recognition technology on the forensic scene has been relatively modest and forensic speaker identification practice remains heavily dominated by the use of a wide variety of largely subjective procedures. While recent developments in the interpretation of the evidential value of forensic evidence clearly favour methods that make it possible for results to be expressed in terms of a likelihood ratio, unlike automatic procedures, traditional methods in the field of speaker identification do not generally meet this requirement. However, conclusions in the form of a binary yes/no-decision or a qualified statement of the probability of the hypothesis rather than the evidence are increasingly criticised for being logically flawed. Against this background, the need to put alternative validation procedures in place is becoming more widely accepted. Although speaker identification by earwitnesses differs in some important respects from the much more widely studied field of eyewitness identification, there are sufficient parallels between the two for speaker identification by earwitnesses to benefit greatly from a close study of the guidelines that have been proposed for the administration of line-ups in the visual domain. Some of the central notions are briefly discussed. Rapid technical developments in the world of telecommunications in which speech and data are increasingly transmitted through the same communication channels may soon blunt the efficacy of traditional telephone interception as an investigative and evidential tool. The gradual shift from analogue to digital recording media and the increasingly widespread availability of digital sound processing equipment as well as its ease of operation make certain types of manipulation of audio recordings comparatively easy to perform. If done competently, such manipulation may leave no traces and may therefore well be impossible to detect. Authorship attribution is another forensic area that has had a relatively chequered history. The rapid increase in the use of electronic writing media including e-mail, sms, and the use of ink jet printers at the expense of typewritten and to a lesser extent hand-written texts reduces the opportunities of authorship attribution by means of traditional document examination techniques and may create a greater demand for linguistic expertise in this area. A survey is provided of ongoing work in the area, based on reactions to a questionnaire sent out earlier this year.},
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