Development of Coprocessed Chitin-Calcium Carbonate as Multifunctional Tablet Excipient for Direct Compression. Chaheen, M., Sanchez-Ballester, N. M., Bataille, B., Yassine, A., Belamie, E., & Sharkawi, T. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 107(8):2152–2159, August, 2018.
Development of Coprocessed Chitin-Calcium Carbonate as Multifunctional Tablet Excipient for Direct Compression [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Owing to the increasing interest in multifunctional excipients for tableting, coprocessing of individual excipients is regularly used to produce excipients of improved multifunctionality superior to individual excipients or their physical mix. The use of chitin as an excipient in tablet formulation is limited because of certain drawbacks such as poor flowability and low true density. The objective of this work is to improve these properties through coprocessing of chitin with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by precipitating CaCO3 on chitin particles using different methods. In addition, optimization of the coprocessed chitin was carried out to improve the excipient's properties. Physicochemical (CaCO3 content, true density, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy) and functional testing (swelling force, flowability, tensile strength, deformation mechanism, and disintegration time) were used to characterize the coprocessed product. Results showed that the calcite CaCO3 polymorph is precipitated on the chitin surface and that it interacts with chitin at carbonyl- and amide-group level. In addition, the coprocessed excipient has an improved true density and powder flowability, with CaCO3 forming single layer on the chitin particles surface. Tableting studies showed that the coprocessed powder exhibited an intermediate deformation behavior between CaCO3 (most brittle) and chitin (most plastic). Tablets showed acceptable tensile strength and rapid disintegration (2-4 s). These results show the potential use of coprocessed chitin-CaCO3 as a multifunctional excipient for fast disintegration of tablets produced by direct compression.
@article{chaheen_development_2018,
	title = {Development of {Coprocessed} {Chitin}-{Calcium} {Carbonate} as {Multifunctional} {Tablet} {Excipient} for {Direct} {Compression}},
	volume = {107},
	issn = {0022-3549},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022354918302168},
	doi = {10.1016/j.xphs.2018.04.013},
	abstract = {Owing to the increasing interest in multifunctional excipients for tableting, coprocessing of individual excipients is regularly used to produce excipients of improved multifunctionality superior to individual excipients or their physical mix. The use of chitin as an excipient in tablet formulation is limited because of certain drawbacks such as poor flowability and low true density. The objective of this work is to improve these properties through coprocessing of chitin with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by precipitating CaCO3 on chitin particles using different methods. In addition, optimization of the coprocessed chitin was carried out to improve the excipient's properties. Physicochemical (CaCO3 content, true density, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy) and functional testing (swelling force, flowability, tensile strength, deformation mechanism, and disintegration time) were used to characterize the coprocessed product. Results showed that the calcite CaCO3 polymorph is precipitated on the chitin surface and that it interacts with chitin at carbonyl- and amide-group level. In addition, the coprocessed excipient has an improved true density and powder flowability, with CaCO3 forming single layer on the chitin particles surface. Tableting studies showed that the coprocessed powder exhibited an intermediate deformation behavior between CaCO3 (most brittle) and chitin (most plastic). Tablets showed acceptable tensile strength and rapid disintegration (2-4 s). These results show the potential use of coprocessed chitin-CaCO3 as a multifunctional excipient for fast disintegration of tablets produced by direct compression.},
	number = {8},
	urldate = {2018-08-08},
	journal = {Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences},
	author = {Chaheen, Mohammad and Sanchez-Ballester, Noelia M. and Bataille, Bernard and Yassine, Ahmad and Belamie, Emmanuel and Sharkawi, Tahmer},
	month = aug,
	year = {2018},
	keywords = {calcium carbonate, chitin, coprocessing, fast disintegration, multifunctional excipients},
	pages = {2152--2159}
}

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