VIS-IR Spectroscopy of Mixtures of Water Ice, Organic Matter, and Opaque Mineral in Support of Small Body Remote Sensing Observations. Ciarniello, M., Moroz, L. V., Poch, O., Vinogradoff, V., Beck, P., Rousseau, B., Istiqomah, I., Sultana, R., Raponi, A., Filacchione, G., Kappel, D., Pommerol, A., Schröder, S. E., Pilorget, C., Quirico, E., Mennella, V., & Schmitt, B. Minerals, 11(11):1222, November, 2021.
VIS-IR Spectroscopy of Mixtures of Water Ice, Organic Matter, and Opaque Mineral in Support of Small Body Remote Sensing Observations [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Visual-to-infrared (VIS-IR) remote sensing observations of different classes of outer solar system objects indicate the presence of water ice and organics. Here, we present laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.5–4.2 μm spectral range of binary particulate mixtures of water ice, organics analogue (kerite), and an opaque iron sulphide phase (pyrrhotite) to investigate the spectral effects of varying mixing ratios, endmember grain size, and mixing modality. The laboratory spectra are also compared to different implementations of the Hapke reflectance model (Hapke, 2012). We find that minor amounts (≲1 wt%) of kerite (investigated grain sizes of 45–63 μm and \textless25 μm) can remain undetected when mixed in coarse-grained (67 ± 31 μm) water ice, suggesting that organics similar to meteoritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) might be characterized by larger detectability thresholds. Additionally, our measurements indicate that the VIS absolute reflectance of water ice-containing mixtures is not necessarily monotonically linked to water ice abundance. The latter is better constrained by spectral indicators such as the band depths of water ice VIS-IR diagnostic absorptions and spectral slopes. Simulation of laboratory spectra of intimate mixtures with a semi-empirical formulation of the Hapke model suggests that simplistic assumptions on the endmember grain size distribution and shape may lead to estimated mixing ratios considerably offset from the nominal values. Finally, laboratory spectra of water ice grains with fine-grained pyrrhotite inclusions (intraparticle mixture) have been positively compared with a modified version of the Hapke model from Lucey and Riner (2011).
@article{ciarniello_vis-ir_2021,
	title = {{VIS}-{IR} {Spectroscopy} of {Mixtures} of {Water} {Ice}, {Organic} {Matter}, and {Opaque} {Mineral} in {Support} of {Small} {Body} {Remote} {Sensing} {Observations}},
	volume = {11},
	issn = {2075-163X},
	url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2075-163X/11/11/1222},
	doi = {10.3390/min11111222},
	abstract = {Visual-to-infrared (VIS-IR) remote sensing observations of different classes of outer solar system objects indicate the presence of water ice and organics. Here, we present laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.5–4.2 μm spectral range of binary particulate mixtures of water ice, organics analogue (kerite), and an opaque iron sulphide phase (pyrrhotite) to investigate the spectral effects of varying mixing ratios, endmember grain size, and mixing modality. The laboratory spectra are also compared to different implementations of the Hapke reflectance model (Hapke, 2012). We find that minor amounts (≲1 wt\%) of kerite (investigated grain sizes of 45–63 μm and {\textless}25 μm) can remain undetected when mixed in coarse-grained (67 ± 31 μm) water ice, suggesting that organics similar to meteoritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) might be characterized by larger detectability thresholds. Additionally, our measurements indicate that the VIS absolute reflectance of water ice-containing mixtures is not necessarily monotonically linked to water ice abundance. The latter is better constrained by spectral indicators such as the band depths of water ice VIS-IR diagnostic absorptions and spectral slopes. Simulation of laboratory spectra of intimate mixtures with a semi-empirical formulation of the Hapke model suggests that simplistic assumptions on the endmember grain size distribution and shape may lead to estimated mixing ratios considerably offset from the nominal values. Finally, laboratory spectra of water ice grains with fine-grained pyrrhotite inclusions (intraparticle mixture) have been positively compared with a modified version of the Hapke model from Lucey and Riner (2011).},
	language = {en},
	number = {11},
	urldate = {2022-06-16},
	journal = {Minerals},
	author = {Ciarniello, Mauro and Moroz, Lyuba V. and Poch, Olivier and Vinogradoff, Vassilissa and Beck, Pierre and Rousseau, Batiste and Istiqomah, Istiqomah and Sultana, Robin and Raponi, Andrea and Filacchione, Gianrico and Kappel, David and Pommerol, Antoine and Schröder, Stefan E. and Pilorget, Cedric and Quirico, Eric and Mennella, Vito and Schmitt, Bernard},
	month = nov,
	year = {2021},
	pages = {1222},
}

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