Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech. Dilley, L. C; Wieland, E. A; Gamache, J. L; McAuley, J D.; and Redford, M. A Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(1):159-177.
Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method: Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children's utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers' utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Experiment 1A) or amount of speech-language training (Experiment 1B) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally modified and unmodified speech. Results: Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusion: Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work.
@article{dilley_age-related_2013,
	Author = {Dilley, Laura C and Wieland, Elizabeth A and Gamache, Jessica L and McAuley, J Devin and Redford, Melissa A},
	Date = {2013},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:06 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0199)},
	Issn = {1092-4388},
	Journal = {Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research},
	Keywords = {age, interspeaker variation, phonetics, speech perception},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {159-177},
	Title = {Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech},
	Url = {http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/56/1/159},
	Volume = {56},
	Abstract = {Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method: Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children's utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers' utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Experiment 1A) or amount of speech-language training (Experiment 1B) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Experiment 3, trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally modified and unmodified speech. Results: Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusion: Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work.},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/56/1/159},
	Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0199)}}
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