Determining the "when" to elucidate the "how" of treatment for alcohol dependent females. Drapkin, M. L. Ph.D. Thesis. 00001
abstract   bibtex   
Issues related to the timing and nature of change in treatment research studies are important ones that have not been addressed adequately in the alcohol dependence treatment literature. The current study applied both Early Treatment Response (ETR) and Sudden Gains (SGs) methodologies to a sample of women who sought treatment for alcohol dependence. An ETR refers to a greater response in less time than would be expected (e.g., 65% decrease in depression in the first four weeks of a twenty week treatment protocol). SGs, on the other hand, are "sudden, substantial symptom improvements" that occur between two sessions and are hypothesized to be the result of what occurred in the first of those two sessions. SGs can happen at any time during the treatment trial (and can happen more than once) and are individualized (i.e., they do not necessarily occur for the whole sample nor, for those who do experience SGs, at the same time). The overall goal of the study was to explore the utility of these methodologies in an alcohol treatment population. Both ETR and SGs were examined across four variables: percent drinking days (PDD), drinks per day (DD), urge frequency (UF), and urge intensity (UI) in a sample of 102 women who were being treated in either individual or couple behavioral therapy for alcohol dependence. We found evidence of both an ETR and of SGs in our sample. Between 27 and 91% of the total within-treatment change occurred in the first four weeks of treatment (i.e., ETR) and one-third of the sample experienced at least one SG for at least one of the alcohol use or urge variables. The most common SGs were for frequency of urges to drink and no SGs were found for drinking intensity. Furthermore, when we examined participant characteristics few of the variables examined were significantly related to either ETR or SGs, leaving us with little understanding of what type of participant might experience one or both of these phenomena. Our results indicate that a majority of the change occurred early in treatment, suggesting that we cannot directly attribute changes to treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
@phdthesis{drapkin_determining_nodate,
	title = {Determining the "when" to elucidate the "how" of treatment for alcohol dependent females},
	shorttitle = {Determining the "when" to elucidate the "how" of treatment for alcohol dependent females},
	abstract = {Issues related to the timing and nature of change in treatment research studies are important ones that have not been addressed adequately in the alcohol dependence treatment literature. The current study applied both Early Treatment Response (ETR) and Sudden Gains (SGs) methodologies to a sample of women who sought treatment for alcohol dependence. An ETR refers to a greater response in less time than would be expected (e.g., 65\% decrease in depression in the first four weeks of a twenty week treatment protocol). SGs, on the other hand, are "sudden, substantial symptom improvements" that occur between two sessions and are hypothesized to be the result of what occurred in the first of those two sessions. SGs can happen at any time during the treatment trial (and can happen more than once) and are individualized (i.e., they do not necessarily occur for the whole sample nor, for those who do experience SGs, at the same time). The overall goal of the study was to explore the utility of these methodologies in an alcohol treatment population. Both ETR and SGs were examined across four variables: percent drinking days (PDD), drinks per day (DD), urge frequency (UF), and urge intensity (UI) in a sample of 102 women who were being treated in either individual or couple behavioral therapy for alcohol dependence. We found evidence of both an ETR and of SGs in our sample. Between 27 and 91\% of the total within-treatment change occurred in the first four weeks of treatment (i.e., ETR) and one-third of the sample experienced at least one SG for at least one of the alcohol use or urge variables. The most common SGs were for frequency of urges to drink and no SGs were found for drinking intensity. Furthermore, when we examined participant characteristics few of the variables examined were significantly related to either ETR or SGs, leaving us with little understanding of what type of participant might experience one or both of these phenomena. Our results indicate that a majority of the change occurred early in treatment, suggesting that we cannot directly attribute changes to treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)},
	author = {Drapkin, Michelle Lynn},
	note = {00001},
	keywords = {PsycINFO, Sudden gains}
}
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