Behavioral role for nitric oxide in chemosensory activation of feeding in a mollusc. Elphick, M., Kemenes, G., Staras, K., & O'Shea, M. The Journal of Neuroscience, 15(11):7653–7664, Soc Neuroscience, nov, 1995.
Behavioral role for nitric oxide in chemosensory activation of feeding in a mollusc [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
A role for the NO-cGMP pathway in mediating chemosensory activation of feeding is suggested by intense NADPH diaphorase staining observed in nerve fibers that project from sensory cella in the lips to the CNS and by the presence in the CNS of a NO-activated guanylyl cyclase. In preparations reduced to isolated lips and CNS, intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons driven by the interneurons of the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. Fictive feeding in such preparations can be recorded from these motoneurons following the application of sucrose to the lips. Sucrose activation of fictive feeding is inhibited by the NO scavenger hemoglobin, the NO synthase inhibitor N($\omega$)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase. Fictive feeding in isolated lip-CNS preparations can be activated without sucrose by superfusion of NO donor molecules such as SNAP and hydroxylamine and by the nonhydrolyzable analog of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP. The feeding CPG can also be activated centrally by depolarizing a modulatory interneuron, the slow oscillator (SO). When the CPG is activated in this way, fictive feeding is not susceptible to inhibition by hemoglobin, the most potent of the inhibitors of sucrose- activated fictive feeding. Behavioral experiments on intact snails confirm the findings from in vitro experiments and show that hemoglobin prevents feeding and methylene blue significantly delays the onset of feeding. These results indicate (1) that NO is a putative chemosensory transmitter in the snail L. stagnalis, (2) that the NO-cGMP pathway can mediate chemosensory activation of specific patterns of centrally generated behavior, (3) that NO is not involved in transmission within the central network of neurons responsible for the behavior, and more generally (4) that a freely diffusing and highly reactive gaseous signalling molecule can have restricted and specific behavioral functions.
@article{pop00445,
abstract = {A role for the NO-cGMP pathway in mediating chemosensory activation of feeding is suggested by intense NADPH diaphorase staining observed in nerve fibers that project from sensory cella in the lips to the CNS and by the presence in the CNS of a NO-activated guanylyl cyclase. In preparations reduced to isolated lips and CNS, intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons driven by the interneurons of the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. Fictive feeding in such preparations can be recorded from these motoneurons following the application of sucrose to the lips. Sucrose activation of fictive feeding is inhibited by the NO scavenger hemoglobin, the NO synthase inhibitor N($\omega$)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase. Fictive feeding in isolated lip-CNS preparations can be activated without sucrose by superfusion of NO donor molecules such as SNAP and hydroxylamine and by the nonhydrolyzable analog of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP. The feeding CPG can also be activated centrally by depolarizing a modulatory interneuron, the slow oscillator (SO). When the CPG is activated in this way, fictive feeding is not susceptible to inhibition by hemoglobin, the most potent of the inhibitors of sucrose- activated fictive feeding. Behavioral experiments on intact snails confirm the findings from in vitro experiments and show that hemoglobin prevents feeding and methylene blue significantly delays the onset of feeding. These results indicate (1) that NO is a putative chemosensory transmitter in the snail L. stagnalis, (2) that the NO-cGMP pathway can mediate chemosensory activation of specific patterns of centrally generated behavior, (3) that NO is not involved in transmission within the central network of neurons responsible for the behavior, and more generally (4) that a freely diffusing and highly reactive gaseous signalling molecule can have restricted and specific behavioral functions.},
annote = {Query date: 2020-06-29 13:05:30},
author = {Elphick, MR and Kemenes, G. and Staras, K. and O'Shea, M.},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-11-07653.1995},
issn = {0270-6474},
journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
keywords = {Lymnaea stagnalis,NADPH diaphorase,central pattern generator,chemosensory,cyclic GMP,feeding,nitric oxide synthase},
month = {nov},
number = {11},
pages = {7653--7664},
pmid = {7472516},
publisher = {Soc Neuroscience},
title = {{Behavioral role for nitric oxide in chemosensory activation of feeding in a mollusc}},
url = {https://www.jneurosci.org/content/15/11/7653.short http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-11-07653.1995},
volume = {15},
year = {1995}
}

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