Chondral fractures of the knee. Arthrographic, arthroscopic, and clinical manifestations. Gilley, J. S., Gelman, M. I., Edson, D. M., & Metcalf, R. W. Radiology, 138(1):51--54, January, 1981.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Chondral fractures are a distinct clinical entity and should be distinguished from the more frequently recognized osteochondral fracture. They occur most often in the medial femoral condyle of young adults following a rotational injury or direct blow to the knee. Clinically, the chondral fracture mimics a torn meniscus and may or may not be associated with a meniscal tear. Unlike osteochondral fractures, chondral fractures exhibit no specific abnormalities on routine radiography, necessitating arthroscopy or arthrography for diagnosis. The abnormality is seen as as a scooped-out defect or linear fracture in the articular cartilage on arthrography; on arthroscopy the findings are similar, though the fracture may appear stellate in cases of a direct blow to the knee.
@article{gilley_chondral_1981,
	title = {Chondral fractures of the knee. {Arthrographic}, arthroscopic, and clinical manifestations},
	volume = {138},
	issn = {0033-8419},
	doi = {10.1148/radiology.138.1.7455096},
	abstract = {Chondral fractures are a distinct clinical entity and should be distinguished from the more frequently recognized osteochondral fracture. They occur most often in the medial femoral condyle of young adults following a rotational injury or direct blow to the knee. Clinically, the chondral fracture mimics a torn meniscus and may or may not be associated with a meniscal tear. Unlike osteochondral fractures, chondral fractures exhibit no specific abnormalities on routine radiography, necessitating arthroscopy or arthrography for diagnosis. The abnormality is seen as as a scooped-out defect or linear fracture in the articular cartilage on arthrography; on arthroscopy the findings are similar, though the fracture may appear stellate in cases of a direct blow to the knee.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {1},
	journal = {Radiology},
	author = {Gilley, J. S. and Gelman, M. I. and Edson, D. M. and Metcalf, R. W.},
	month = jan,
	year = {1981},
	pmid = {7455096},
	keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Cartilage, Articular, Endoscopy, Female, Fractures, Cartilage, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, knee injuries},
	pages = {51--54}
}

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