The Structure of Low-Altitude Clouds over the Southern Ocean as Seen by CloudSat. Huang, Y., Siems, S. T., Manton, M. J., Hande, L. B., & Haynes, J. M. Journal of Climate, 25(7):2535--2546, American Meteorological Society, 2014/11/12, 2012.
The Structure of Low-Altitude Clouds over the Southern Ocean as Seen by CloudSat [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
AbstractA climatology of the structure of the low-altitude cloud field (tops below 4 km) over the Southern Ocean (40$\,^{i̧rc}$?65$\,^{i̧rc}$S) in the vicinity of Australia (100$\,^{i̧rc}$?160$\,^{i̧rc}$E) has been constructed with CloudSat products for liquid water and ice water clouds. Averaging over longitude and time, CloudSat produces a roughly uniform cloud field between heights of approximately 750 and 2250 m across the extent of the domain for both winter and summer. This cloud field makes a transition from consisting primarily of liquid water at the lower latitudes to ice water at the higher latitudes. This transition is primarily driven by the gradient in the temperature, which is commonly between 0$\,^{i̧rc}$and ?20$\,^{i̧rc}$C, rather than by direct physical observation.The uniform lower boundary is a consequence of the CloudSat cloud detection algorithm being unable to reliably separate radar returns because of the bright surface versus returns due to clouds, in the lowest four range bins above the surface. This is potentially very problematic over the Southern Ocean where the depth of the boundary layer has been observed to be as shallow as 500 m. Cloud fields inferred from upper-air soundings at Macquarie Island (54.62$\,^{i̧rc}$S, 158.85$\,^{i̧rc}$E) similarly suggest that the peak frequency lies between 260 and 500 m for both summer and winter. No immediate explanation is available for the uniformity of the cloud-top boundary. This lack of a strong seasonal cycle is, perhaps, remarkable given the large seasonal cycles in both the shortwave (SW) radiative forcing experienced and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration over the Southern Ocean.
@article{Huang:2012,
	Abstract = {AbstractA climatology of the structure of the low-altitude cloud field (tops below 4 km) over the Southern Ocean (40$\,^{\circ}$?65$\,^{\circ}$S) in the vicinity of Australia (100$\,^{\circ}$?160$\,^{\circ}$E) has been constructed with CloudSat products for liquid water and ice water clouds. Averaging over longitude and time, CloudSat produces a roughly uniform cloud field between heights of approximately 750 and 2250 m across the extent of the domain for both winter and summer. This cloud field makes a transition from consisting primarily of liquid water at the lower latitudes to ice water at the higher latitudes. This transition is primarily driven by the gradient in the temperature, which is commonly between 0$\,^{\circ}$and ?20$\,^{\circ}$C, rather than by direct physical observation.The uniform lower boundary is a consequence of the CloudSat cloud detection algorithm being unable to reliably separate radar returns because of the bright surface versus returns due to clouds, in the lowest four range bins above the surface. This is potentially very problematic over the Southern Ocean where the depth of the boundary layer has been observed to be as shallow as 500 m. Cloud fields inferred from upper-air soundings at Macquarie Island (54.62$\,^{\circ}$S, 158.85$\,^{\circ}$E) similarly suggest that the peak frequency lies between 260 and 500 m for both summer and winter. No immediate explanation is available for the uniformity of the cloud-top boundary. This lack of a strong seasonal cycle is, perhaps, remarkable given the large seasonal cycles in both the shortwave (SW) radiative forcing experienced and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration over the Southern Ocean.},
	Annote = {doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00131.1},
	Author = {Huang, Yi and Siems, Steven T. and Manton, Michael J. and Hande, Luke B. and Haynes, John M.},
	Booktitle = {Journal of Climate},
	Da = {2012/04/01},
	Date = {2012/01/11},
	Date-Added = {2014-11-12 23:53:07 +0000},
	Date-Modified = {2014-11-12 23:53:07 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00131.1},
	Isbn = {0894-8755},
	Journal = {Journal of Climate},
	Journal1 = {J. Climate},
	M3 = {doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00131.1},
	Month = {2014/11/12},
	N2 = {AbstractA climatology of the structure of the low-altitude cloud field (tops below 4 km) over the Southern Ocean (40$\,^{\circ}$?65$\,^{\circ}$S) in the vicinity of Australia (100$\,^{\circ}$?160$\,^{\circ}$E) has been constructed with CloudSat products for liquid water and ice water clouds. Averaging over longitude and time, CloudSat produces a roughly uniform cloud field between heights of approximately 750 and 2250 m across the extent of the domain for both winter and summer. This cloud field makes a transition from consisting primarily of liquid water at the lower latitudes to ice water at the higher latitudes. This transition is primarily driven by the gradient in the temperature, which is commonly between 0$\,^{\circ}$and ?20$\,^{\circ}$C, rather than by direct physical observation.The uniform lower boundary is a consequence of the CloudSat cloud detection algorithm being unable to reliably separate radar returns because of the bright surface versus returns due to clouds, in the lowest four range bins above the surface. This is potentially very problematic over the Southern Ocean where the depth of the boundary layer has been observed to be as shallow as 500 m. Cloud fields inferred from upper-air soundings at Macquarie Island (54.62$\,^{\circ}$S, 158.85$\,^{\circ}$E) similarly suggest that the peak frequency lies between 260 and 500 m for both summer and winter. No immediate explanation is available for the uniformity of the cloud-top boundary. This lack of a strong seasonal cycle is, perhaps, remarkable given the large seasonal cycles in both the shortwave (SW) radiative forcing experienced and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration over the Southern Ocean.},
	Number = {7},
	Pages = {2535--2546},
	Publisher = {American Meteorological Society},
	Title = {The Structure of Low-Altitude Clouds over the Southern Ocean as Seen by CloudSat},
	Ty = {JOUR},
	Url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00131.1},
	Volume = {25},
	Year = {2012},
	Year1 = {2012},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00131.1}}

Downloads: 0