Sensorimotor integration in the primate superior colliculus. I. Motor convergence. Jay, M F & Sparks, D L J Neurophysiol, 57(1):22–34, 1987.
Sensorimotor integration in the primate superior colliculus. I. Motor convergence [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Orienting movements of the eyes and head are made to both auditory and visual stimuli even though in the primary sensory pathways the locations of auditory and visual stimuli are encoded in different coordinates. This study was designed to differentiate between two possible mechanisms for sensory-to-motor transformation. Auditory and visual signals could be translated into common coordinates in order to share a single motor pathway or they could maintain anatomically separate sensory and motor routes for the initiation and guidance of orienting eye movements. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) that discharge before saccades to visual targets also discharge before saccades directed toward auditory targets. If they do, this would indicate that auditory and visual signals, originally encoded in different coordinates, have been converted into a single coordinate system and are sharing a motor circuit. Trained monkeys made saccadic eye movements to auditory or visual targets while the activity of visual-motor (V-M) cells and saccade-related burst (SRB) cells was monitored. The pattern of spike activity observed during trials in which saccades were made to visual targets was compared with that observed when comparable saccades were made to auditory targets. For most (57 of 59) V-M cells, sensory responses were observed only on visual trials. Auditory stimuli originating from the same region of space did not activate these cells. Yet, of the 72 V-M and SRB cells studied, 79% showed motor bursts prior to saccades to either auditory or visual targets. This finding indicates that visual and auditory signals, originally encoded in retinal and head-centered coordinates, respectively, have undergone a transformation that allows them to share a common efferent pathway for the generation of saccadic eye movements. Saccades to auditory targets usually have lower velocities than saccades of the same amplitude and direction made to acquire visual targets. Since fewer collicular cells are active prior to saccades to auditory targets, one determinant of saccadic velocity may be the number of collicular neurons discharging before a particular saccade.
@article{jay_sensorimotor_1987,
	title = {Sensorimotor integration in the primate superior colliculus. {I}. {Motor} convergence},
	volume = {57},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3559673},
	abstract = {Orienting movements of the eyes and head are made to both auditory and visual stimuli even though in the primary sensory pathways the locations of auditory and visual stimuli are encoded in different coordinates. This study was designed to differentiate between two possible mechanisms for sensory-to-motor transformation. Auditory and visual signals could be translated into common coordinates in order to share a single motor pathway or they could maintain anatomically separate sensory and motor routes for the initiation and guidance of orienting eye movements. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) that discharge before saccades to visual targets also discharge before saccades directed toward auditory targets. If they do, this would indicate that auditory and visual signals, originally encoded in different coordinates, have been converted into a single coordinate system and are sharing a motor circuit. Trained monkeys made saccadic eye movements to auditory or visual targets while the activity of visual-motor (V-M) cells and saccade-related burst (SRB) cells was monitored. The pattern of spike activity observed during trials in which saccades were made to visual targets was compared with that observed when comparable saccades were made to auditory targets. For most (57 of 59) V-M cells, sensory responses were observed only on visual trials. Auditory stimuli originating from the same region of space did not activate these cells. Yet, of the 72 V-M and SRB cells studied, 79\% showed motor bursts prior to saccades to either auditory or visual targets. This finding indicates that visual and auditory signals, originally encoded in retinal and head-centered coordinates, respectively, have undergone a transformation that allows them to share a common efferent pathway for the generation of saccadic eye movements. Saccades to auditory targets usually have lower velocities than saccades of the same amplitude and direction made to acquire visual targets. Since fewer collicular cells are active prior to saccades to auditory targets, one determinant of saccadic velocity may be the number of collicular neurons discharging before a particular saccade.},
	number = {1},
	journal = {J Neurophysiol},
	author = {Jay, M F and Sparks, D L},
	year = {1987},
	pmid = {3559673},
	keywords = {*Eye Movements, *Saccades, Acoustic Stimulation, Animals, Auditory Pathways/physiology, Electrophysiology, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Evoked Potentials, Visual, Macaca mulatta, Neurons/physiology, Photic Stimulation, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Superior Colliculus/*physiology, Visual Pathways/physiology},
	pages = {22--34},
}

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