Functional Implications of Neurotransmitter Expression during Axonal Regeneration: Serotonin, But Not Peptides, Auto-Regulate Axon Growth of an Identified Central Neuron. Koert, C. E., Spencer, G. E., van Minnen, J., Li, K. W., Geraerts, W. P. M., Syed, N. I., Smit, A. B., & van Kesteren, R. E. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21(15):5597–5606, Soc Neuroscience, aug, 2001.
Functional Implications of Neurotransmitter Expression during Axonal Regeneration: Serotonin, But Not Peptides, Auto-Regulate Axon Growth of an Identified Central Neuron [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
We studied the regenerative properties of one of two electrically coupled molluscan neurons, the serotonergic cerebral giant cells (CGCs) of Lymnaea stagnalis, after axotomy. The CGCs play a crucial role in feeding behavior, and when both cells are disconnected from their target neurons, animals no longer feed. When one CGC was permanently disconnected from its targets and the other was reversibly damaged by a nerve crush, the latter one regenerated over a period of 2 weeks to reform functional synapses with specific target neurons. At the same time, recovery of the feeding behavior was observed. After the crush, neuropeptide gene expression in the CGC was down-regulated to ∼50%. Serotonin synthesis, on the other hand, remained unaffected, suggesting that serotonin might have an active role in regeneration. In primary neuron culture, CGCs failed to extend neurites in the presence of serotonin; in cells that extended neurites in the absence of serotonin, focally applied serotonin, but not neuropeptides, induced growth cone collapse. Using serotonin-sensitive sniffer cells, we show that CGC neurites and growth cones release serotonin in culture. Finally, both the spontaneous and stimulation-induced release of serotonin from CGCs in culture resulted in growth cone collapse responses that could be blocked by the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide. Our data suggest that auto-released serotonin is inhibitory to CGC neurite outgrowth in vitro. During regeneration in vivo, serotonin release might finetune axon guidance and branching by inducing local collapse responses in extending neurites.
@article{pop00234,
abstract = {We studied the regenerative properties of one of two electrically coupled molluscan neurons, the serotonergic cerebral giant cells (CGCs) of Lymnaea stagnalis, after axotomy. The CGCs play a crucial role in feeding behavior, and when both cells are disconnected from their target neurons, animals no longer feed. When one CGC was permanently disconnected from its targets and the other was reversibly damaged by a nerve crush, the latter one regenerated over a period of 2 weeks to reform functional synapses with specific target neurons. At the same time, recovery of the feeding behavior was observed. After the crush, neuropeptide gene expression in the CGC was down-regulated to ∼50{\%}. Serotonin synthesis, on the other hand, remained unaffected, suggesting that serotonin might have an active role in regeneration. In primary neuron culture, CGCs failed to extend neurites in the presence of serotonin; in cells that extended neurites in the absence of serotonin, focally applied serotonin, but not neuropeptides, induced growth cone collapse. Using serotonin-sensitive sniffer cells, we show that CGC neurites and growth cones release serotonin in culture. Finally, both the spontaneous and stimulation-induced release of serotonin from CGCs in culture resulted in growth cone collapse responses that could be blocked by the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide. Our data suggest that auto-released serotonin is inhibitory to CGC neurite outgrowth in vitro. During regeneration in vivo, serotonin release might finetune axon guidance and branching by inducing local collapse responses in extending neurites.},
annote = {Query date: 2020-06-29 13:05:30},
author = {Koert, Cornelis E. and Spencer, Gaynor E. and van Minnen, Jan and Li, Ka Wan and Geraerts, Wijnand P. M. and Syed, Naweed I. and Smit, August B. and van Kesteren, Ronald E.},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-15-05597.2001},
issn = {0270-6474},
journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
keywords = {Behavioral recovery,Lymnaea stagnalis,Myomodulin,Neurite outgrowth,Neuronal regeneration,Serotonin,Synapse formation},
month = {aug},
number = {15},
pages = {5597--5606},
pmid = {11466431},
publisher = {Soc Neuroscience},
title = {{Functional Implications of Neurotransmitter Expression during Axonal Regeneration: Serotonin, But Not Peptides, Auto-Regulate Axon Growth of an Identified Central Neuron}},
url = {https://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/15/5597.short http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-15-05597.2001},
volume = {21},
year = {2001}
}

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