Learning and representation in speech and language. Kuhl, P. K Current opinion in neurobiology, 4:812-822.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Infants learn language with remarkable speed. By the end of their second year they speak in sentences with an 'accent' typical of a native speaker. How does an individual acquire a specific language? While acknowledging the biological preparation for language, this review focuses on the effects of early language experience on infants' perceptual and perceptual-motor systems. The data show that by the time infants begin to master the higher levels of language--sound-meaning correspondences, contrastive phonology, and grammatical rules--their perceptual and perceptual-motor systems are already tuned to a specific language. The consequences of this are described in a developmental theory at the phonetic level that holds promise for higher levels of language.
@article{kuhl_learning_1994,
	Author = {Kuhl, Patricia K},
	Date = {1994},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:07 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1016/0959-4388(94)90128-7},
	Issn = {09594388},
	Journal = {Current opinion in neurobiology},
	Keywords = {L1 acquisition, L2, L2 acquisition, NLM, phonetics, speech perception},
	Pages = {812-822},
	Pmid = {7888763},
	Title = {Learning and representation in speech and language.},
	Volume = {4},
	Abstract = {Infants learn language with remarkable speed. By the end of their second year they speak in sentences with an 'accent' typical of a native speaker. How does an individual acquire a specific language? While acknowledging the biological preparation for language, this review focuses on the effects of early language experience on infants' perceptual and perceptual-motor systems. The data show that by the time infants begin to master the higher levels of language--sound-meaning correspondences, contrastive phonology, and grammatical rules--their perceptual and perceptual-motor systems are already tuned to a specific language. The consequences of this are described in a developmental theory at the phonetic level that holds promise for higher levels of language.},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-4388(94)90128-7}}
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