Investigating isolated neuromuscular control contributions to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk via computer simulation methods. McLean, S. G., Huang, X., & van den Bogert, A. J. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 23(7):926–936, August, 2008.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing evolution of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention methods, injury rates and the associated sex-disparity remain. Strategies capable of successfully countering key control parameters existent within the injury mechanism thus remain elusive. Forward dynamics model simulations afford an expedited means to study realistic injury causing scenarios, while controlling all facets of the movement control strategy. Utilizing these methods, the current study examined the potential for perturbations in key initial contact neuromuscular parameters to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during the stance phase of sidestep cutting maneuvers. METHODS: Controlled experiments were performed on optimized and validated subject-specific forward dynamic musculoskeletal sidestep models generated from 10 male and 10 female data sets. Random perturbations (n=5000) were applied to initial contact kinematic and muscle activation parameters in these baseline models and then to those with prescribed systematic modifications in initial hip and knee flexion, hip internal rotation and hip internal rotation velocity postures. The number of injuries via an isolated anterior tibial shear (\textgreater2000 N) or knee valgus load (\textgreater125 Nm) mechanism was determined for each of the seven model conditions and subsequently compared. FINDINGS: Neuromuscular control perturbations produced peak stance phase (0-100 ms) knee valgus loads large enough to induce anterior cruciate ligament injury. Decreases and increases in combined initial contact hip and knee flexion postures and hip internal rotation velocity produced significant increases and decreases in these valgus-induced ACL injury rates respectively. INTERPRETATION: Anterior cruciate ligament injury via a valgus load mechanism is more likely during sidestepping when landing in a more extended posture, or with increased hip external rotation velocity. The fact that injury rates are reduced when these control parameters are reversed suggests they should be central to ongoing prevention strategy developments.
@article{mclean_investigating_2008,
	title = {Investigating isolated neuromuscular control contributions to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk via computer simulation methods},
	volume = {23},
	copyright = {All rights reserved},
	issn = {0268-0033},
	doi = {10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.03.072},
	abstract = {BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing evolution of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention methods, injury rates and the associated sex-disparity remain. Strategies capable of successfully countering key control parameters existent within the injury mechanism thus remain elusive. Forward dynamics model simulations afford an expedited means to study realistic injury causing scenarios, while controlling all facets of the movement control strategy. Utilizing these methods, the current study examined the potential for perturbations in key initial contact neuromuscular parameters to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during the stance phase of sidestep cutting maneuvers.
METHODS: Controlled experiments were performed on optimized and validated subject-specific forward dynamic musculoskeletal sidestep models generated from 10 male and 10 female data sets. Random perturbations (n=5000) were applied to initial contact kinematic and muscle activation parameters in these baseline models and then to those with prescribed systematic modifications in initial hip and knee flexion, hip internal rotation and hip internal rotation velocity postures. The number of injuries via an isolated anterior tibial shear ({\textgreater}2000 N) or knee valgus load ({\textgreater}125 Nm) mechanism was determined for each of the seven model conditions and subsequently compared.
FINDINGS: Neuromuscular control perturbations produced peak stance phase (0-100 ms) knee valgus loads large enough to induce anterior cruciate ligament injury. Decreases and increases in combined initial contact hip and knee flexion postures and hip internal rotation velocity produced significant increases and decreases in these valgus-induced ACL injury rates respectively.
INTERPRETATION: Anterior cruciate ligament injury via a valgus load mechanism is more likely during sidestepping when landing in a more extended posture, or with increased hip external rotation velocity. The fact that injury rates are reduced when these control parameters are reversed suggests they should be central to ongoing prevention strategy developments.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {7},
	journal = {Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)},
	author = {McLean, Scott G. and Huang, Xuemei and van den Bogert, Antonie J.},
	month = aug,
	year = {2008},
	pmid = {18485552},
	keywords = {Adult, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Computer Simulation, Female, Humans, Knee Injuries, Male, Models, Biological, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Risk Assessment},
	pages = {926--936},
}

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