Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons' operative performance. Min, H.; Morales, D. R.; Orgill, D.; Smink, D. S.; and Yule, S. Surgery (United States), 158(5):1168–1191, Elsevier Inc., 2015.
Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons' operative performance [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Background There is increasing attention on the coaching of surgeons and trainees to improve performance but no comprehensive review on this topic. The purpose of this review is to summarize the quantity and the quality of studies involving surgical coaching methods and their effectiveness. Methods We performed a systematic literature search through PubMed and PsychINFO by using predefined inclusion criteria. Evidence for main outcome categories was evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Results Of a total 3,063 articles, 23 met our inclusion criteria; 4 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies. We categorized the articles into 4 groups on the basis of the outcome studied: perception, attitude and opinion; technical skills; nontechnical skills; and performance measures. Overall strength of evidence for each outcome groups was as follows: Perception, attitude, and opinion (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation: Very Low, Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument [MERSQI]: 10); technical skills (randomized controlled trials: High, 13.1; Observation studies: Very Low, 11.5); nontechnical skills (Very Low, 12.4) and performance measures (Very Low, 13.6). Simulation was the most used setting for coaching; more than half of the studies deployed an experienced surgeon as a coach and showed that coaching was effective. Conclusion Surgical coaching interventions have a positive impact on learners' perception and attitudes, their technical and nontechnical skills, and performance measures. Evidence of impact on patient outcomes was limited, and the quality of research studies was variable. Despite this, our systematic review of different coaching interventions will benefit future coaching strategies and implementation to enhance operative performance.
@article{Min2015,
abstract = {Background There is increasing attention on the coaching of surgeons and trainees to improve performance but no comprehensive review on this topic. The purpose of this review is to summarize the quantity and the quality of studies involving surgical coaching methods and their effectiveness. Methods We performed a systematic literature search through PubMed and PsychINFO by using predefined inclusion criteria. Evidence for main outcome categories was evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Results Of a total 3,063 articles, 23 met our inclusion criteria; 4 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies. We categorized the articles into 4 groups on the basis of the outcome studied: perception, attitude and opinion; technical skills; nontechnical skills; and performance measures. Overall strength of evidence for each outcome groups was as follows: Perception, attitude, and opinion (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation: Very Low, Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument [MERSQI]: 10); technical skills (randomized controlled trials: High, 13.1; Observation studies: Very Low, 11.5); nontechnical skills (Very Low, 12.4) and performance measures (Very Low, 13.6). Simulation was the most used setting for coaching; more than half of the studies deployed an experienced surgeon as a coach and showed that coaching was effective. Conclusion Surgical coaching interventions have a positive impact on learners' perception and attitudes, their technical and nontechnical skills, and performance measures. Evidence of impact on patient outcomes was limited, and the quality of research studies was variable. Despite this, our systematic review of different coaching interventions will benefit future coaching strategies and implementation to enhance operative performance.},
annote = {Coaching: a form of inquiry-based learning characterized by collaboration btwn individs or groups and more accomplished peers

LOOK AT REF 38 FOR KIRKPATRICK'S MODEL OF TRAINING EVALUATION: 
- reactions
- learning
- behaviour
- results
Adaption of eval model:
- perception/attitude/opinions
- technical skills
- non technical skills
- performance measures (improved patient or health care outcomes)

Evaluating quality of study evidence (with interventions??)
Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Eval (GRADE) system: evaluating quality of evidence and strength of recommendation from research studies based on critiquing likelihood of bias/inconsistency of results/indirectness of evidence

Medical education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI): 10 item scale tool to evaluate educational studies that assess study design type/sampling/type of data/validity of evaluation instrument/data analysis/outcomes},
author = {Min, Hyeyoun and Morales, Dianali Rivera and Orgill, Dennis and Smink, Douglas S. and Yule, Steven},
doi = {10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.007},
file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/cindy/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Min et al. - 2015 - Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons' operative performance.pdf:pdf},
isbn = {1532-7361 (Electronic)$\backslash$r0039-6060 (Linking)},
issn = {15327361},
journal = {Surgery (United States)},
number = {5},
pages = {1168--1191},
pmid = {25956742},
publisher = {Elsevier Inc.},
title = {{Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons' operative performance}},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.007},
volume = {158},
year = {2015}
}
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