Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease in the UK: prospective cohort study. Morris, S; Patel, N; Baio, G; Kelly, L; Lewis-Holmes, E; Omar, RZ; Katona, C; Cooper, C; and Livingston, G BMJ open, 5(3):e007382, 2015.
Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease in the UK: prospective cohort study. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
OBJECTIVE: While nearly half of all people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have agitation symptoms every month, little is known about the costs of agitation in AD. We calculated the monetary costs associated with agitation in older adults with AD in the UK from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: London and the South East Region of the UK (LASER-AD study). PARTICIPANTS: 224 people with AD recruited between July 2002 and January 2003 and followed up for 54 months. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was health and social care costs, including accommodation costs and costs of contacts with health and social care services. Agitation was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) agitation score. RESULTS: After adjustment, health and social care costs varied significantly by agitation, from £29 000 over a 1 year period with no agitation symptoms (NPI agitation score=0) to £57 000 at the most severe levels of agitation (NPI agitation score=12; p=0.01). The mean excess cost associated with agitation per person with AD was £4091 a year, accounting for 12% of the health and social care costs of AD in our data, and equating to £2 billion a year across all people with AD in the UK. CONCLUSIONS: Agitation in people with AD represents a substantial monetary burden over and above the costs associated with cognitive impairment.
@ARTICLE{Morrisetal:2015,
  author = {Morris, S and Patel, N and Baio, G and Kelly, L and Lewis-Holmes,
	E and {Omar, RZ} and Katona, C and Cooper, C and Livingston, G},
  title = {{Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease
	in the UK: prospective cohort study.}},
  journal = {BMJ open},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {e007382},
  abstract = {OBJECTIVE: While nearly half of all people with Alzheimer's disease
	(AD) have agitation symptoms every month, little is known about the
	costs of agitation in AD. We calculated the monetary costs associated
	with agitation in older adults with AD in the UK from a National
	Health Service and personal social services perspective. DESIGN:
	Prospective cohort study. SETTING: London and the South East Region
	of the UK (LASER-AD study). PARTICIPANTS: 224 people with AD recruited
	between July 2002 and January 2003 and followed up for 54 months.
	PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was health
	and social care costs, including accommodation costs and costs of
	contacts with health and social care services. Agitation was assessed
	using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) agitation score. RESULTS:
	After adjustment, health and social care costs varied significantly
	by agitation, from £29 000 over a 1 year period with no agitation
	symptoms (NPI agitation score=0) to £57 000 at the most severe levels
	of agitation (NPI agitation score=12; p=0.01). The mean excess cost
	associated with agitation per person with AD was £4091 a year, accounting
	for 12% of the health and social care costs of AD in our data, and
	equating to £2 billion a year across all people with AD in the UK.
	CONCLUSIONS: Agitation in people with AD represents a substantial
	monetary burden over and above the costs associated with cognitive
	impairment.},
  doi = {10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007382},
  eissn = {2044-6055},
  number = {3},
  url = {http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/3/e007382.full.pdf+html}
}
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