Regional inventory of soil surface nitrogen balances in Indian agriculture (2000–2001). Prasad, V. K., Badarinath, K. V. S., Yonemura, S., & Tsuruta, H. Journal of Environmental Management, 73(3):209–218, November, 2004.
Regional inventory of soil surface nitrogen balances in Indian agriculture (2000–2001) [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Nitrogen regulates several ecological and biogeochemical processes and excess reactive nitrogen in the environment can lead to pollution problems, including the deterioration of air quality, disruption of forest processes, acidification of lakes and streams, and degradation of coastal waters. Much of the excess nitrogen inputs are related to food and energy production. An important step to understanding the sources of nitrogen and ultimately defining solutions to excess nitrogen is to describe the geographic distribution of agricultural nitrogen contributions from different regions. In this study, soil surface nitrogen loads were quantified for different states of India for the period 2000–2001. Nearly 35.4 Tg of nitrogen has been estimated as inputs from different sources, with output nitrogen from harvested crops of about 21.20 Tg. The soil surface nitrogen balance, estimated as inputs minus outputs, is found to be about 14.4 Tg surplus from the agricultural land of India. Livestock manure constituted a major percentage of total inputs (44.06%), followed by inorganic fertilizer (32.48%), atmospheric deposition (11.86%) and nitrogen fixation (11.58%). Nitrogen balance varied from deficit to surplus for different states. The highest nitrogen surplus was found in Uttar Pradesh (2.50 Tg) followed by Madhya Pradesh (1.83 Tg), Andhra Pradesh (1.79 Tg), etc. A negative nitrogen balance was found in Orissa (−0.01 Tg), Andaman Nicobar Islands (−0.32 Tg) and for some of the northeastern states. Major fertilizer consumption states were found to be Tamilnadu (204 kg/ha), Haryana (132 kg/ha), Punjab (148 kg/ha), followed by others. Similarly, nitrogen inputs from total livestock excretions were found to be high for Kerala (616 kg/ha), Jammu and Kashmir (389 kg/ha), Tamil Nadu (338 kg/ha), etc. The average nitrogen surplus of about 54 kg/ha observed for the agricultural land of the entire country of India is comparatively higher than the average surplus of about 31 kg/ha reported for European countries. These results, obtained from nutrient mass balance calculations, will be useful to formulate nutrient management plans relating to fertilizer usage, livestock management and for adopting some best management strategies at a state level in India.
@article{prasad_regional_2004,
	title = {Regional inventory of soil surface nitrogen balances in {Indian} agriculture (2000–2001)},
	volume = {73},
	issn = {0301-4797},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479704001549},
	doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.06.013},
	abstract = {Nitrogen regulates several ecological and biogeochemical processes and excess reactive nitrogen in the environment can lead to pollution problems, including the deterioration of air quality, disruption of forest processes, acidification of lakes and streams, and degradation of coastal waters. Much of the excess nitrogen inputs are related to food and energy production. An important step to understanding the sources of nitrogen and ultimately defining solutions to excess nitrogen is to describe the geographic distribution of agricultural nitrogen contributions from different regions. In this study, soil surface nitrogen loads were quantified for different states of India for the period 2000–2001. Nearly 35.4 Tg of nitrogen has been estimated as inputs from different sources, with output nitrogen from harvested crops of about 21.20 Tg. The soil surface nitrogen balance, estimated as inputs minus outputs, is found to be about 14.4 Tg surplus from the agricultural land of India. Livestock manure constituted a major percentage of total inputs (44.06\%), followed by inorganic fertilizer (32.48\%), atmospheric deposition (11.86\%) and nitrogen fixation (11.58\%). Nitrogen balance varied from deficit to surplus for different states. The highest nitrogen surplus was found in Uttar Pradesh (2.50 Tg) followed by Madhya Pradesh (1.83 Tg), Andhra Pradesh (1.79 Tg), etc. A negative nitrogen balance was found in Orissa (−0.01 Tg), Andaman Nicobar Islands (−0.32 Tg) and for some of the northeastern states. Major fertilizer consumption states were found to be Tamilnadu (204 kg/ha), Haryana (132 kg/ha), Punjab (148 kg/ha), followed by others. Similarly, nitrogen inputs from total livestock excretions were found to be high for Kerala (616 kg/ha), Jammu and Kashmir (389 kg/ha), Tamil Nadu (338 kg/ha), etc. The average nitrogen surplus of about 54 kg/ha observed for the agricultural land of the entire country of India is comparatively higher than the average surplus of about 31 kg/ha reported for European countries. These results, obtained from nutrient mass balance calculations, will be useful to formulate nutrient management plans relating to fertilizer usage, livestock management and for adopting some best management strategies at a state level in India.},
	number = {3},
	urldate = {2015-06-09TZ},
	journal = {Journal of Environmental Management},
	author = {Prasad, V. Krishna and Badarinath, K. V. S. and Yonemura, S. and Tsuruta, H.},
	month = nov,
	year = {2004},
	keywords = {Indian agriculture, Regional N inventory, Soil surface nitrogen balance},
	pages = {209--218}
}

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