The state of the art of living walls: Lessons learned. Riley, B. Building and Environment, 114:219--232, 2017.
The state of the art of living walls: Lessons learned [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Marching toward legitimacy, living walls are slowly being vetted. Establishing living walls as a viable constructive system will require filling gaps in our knowledge by taking advantage of the lessons learned from recently built projects. Growing plants on a vertical surface gives the appearance of natural simplicity. However, achieving a successful living wall is a complex problem with many factors. These include: ensuring an appropriate support structure, maintaining the proper amount of water, oxygen, nutrients and pH levels, choosing plants which can survive seasonal climatic changes, and establishing the appropriate lighting conditions; not to mention affordability, sustainability and longevity. Satisfying these complex needs - mastering all of these factors - will be essential for living wall systems to mature beyond their use as vanity projects and gain acceptance by the construction industry. This article aims to aid those considering living walls and dispel some of the mystery surrounding them by studying precedents and addressing their commonly cited criticisms: living walls are too expensive and unsustainable, too complicated and prone to failure, and too decorative and superficial to the buildings they serve. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
@article{riley_state_2017,
	title = {The state of the art of living walls: {Lessons} learned},
	volume = {114},
	url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85008158188&doi=10.1016%2fj.buildenv.2016.12.016&partnerID=40&md5=5bcc5d9833b90b51c48e20ebf0f506f3},
	doi = {10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.12.016},
	abstract = {Marching toward legitimacy, living walls are slowly being vetted. Establishing living walls as a viable constructive system will require filling gaps in our knowledge by taking advantage of the lessons learned from recently built projects. Growing plants on a vertical surface gives the appearance of natural simplicity. However, achieving a successful living wall is a complex problem with many factors. These include: ensuring an appropriate support structure, maintaining the proper amount of water, oxygen, nutrients and pH levels, choosing plants which can survive seasonal climatic changes, and establishing the appropriate lighting conditions; not to mention affordability, sustainability and longevity. Satisfying these complex needs - mastering all of these factors - will be essential for living wall systems to mature beyond their use as vanity projects and gain acceptance by the construction industry. This article aims to aid those considering living walls and dispel some of the mystery surrounding them by studying precedents and addressing their commonly cited criticisms: living walls are too expensive and unsustainable, too complicated and prone to failure, and too decorative and superficial to the buildings they serve. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd},
	journal = {Building and Environment},
	author = {Riley, B.},
	year = {2017},
	keywords = {Architecture case studies, Green wall integrated systems, High performance design, Living wall technologies, Sustainable built environments, Urban vegetation},
	pages = {219--232}
}

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