Secretory activity and postembryonic development of the tentacle sensory system controlling growth hormone-producing neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis. Roubos, E. W. & Smeets, J. S. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 76(1):29–40, Elsevier, 1989.
Secretory activity and postembryonic development of the tentacle sensory system controlling growth hormone-producing neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The cerebral neuroendocrine peptidergic light green cells (LGC) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis regulate body growth. The LGC are controlled by a tentacle sensory system that consists of two types (S1 and S2) of primary sensory neuron located at the base of each tentacle. Sensory (S2) axons make synaptic contacts (type A synapse-like structures) with the somata and axons of the LGC, where they release the contents of secretory granules, by exocytosis (demonstrated with the ultrastructural tannic acid-Ringer incubation method). Ultracytochemistry indicates that the granule contents are glycoproteinaceous. Furthermore, the S2 axons release secretory material in a nonsynaptic fashion into the interneuronal space of the central nervous system (CNS), at the level of the neuropiles of the cerebral ganglia and of the cerebral commissure. This release occurs by exocytosis from nonsynaptic release sites. It is proposed that the tentacle sensory system not only (synaptically) controls LGC activity but also influences other, remote neuronal targets in the CNS in a nonsynaptic ("at long distance," "paracrine," "hormone-like") fashion. Already in newly hatched snails (with a shell height of 1 mm) S2 axons show a fair rate of exocytotic activity, in both synaptic and nonsynaptic respects. During postembryonic development the secretory capacity of the S2 sensory neurons increases markedly, by increases in (1) the number of axons, (2) the size of the secretory granules, and (3) exocytosis activity. This increased capacity may meet a growing demand of the developing CNS, including the LGC, for neurochemical input from the tentacle sensory system. \textcopyright 1989.
@article{pop00100,
abstract = {The cerebral neuroendocrine peptidergic light green cells (LGC) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis regulate body growth. The LGC are controlled by a tentacle sensory system that consists of two types (S1 and S2) of primary sensory neuron located at the base of each tentacle. Sensory (S2) axons make synaptic contacts (type A synapse-like structures) with the somata and axons of the LGC, where they release the contents of secretory granules, by exocytosis (demonstrated with the ultrastructural tannic acid-Ringer incubation method). Ultracytochemistry indicates that the granule contents are glycoproteinaceous. Furthermore, the S2 axons release secretory material in a nonsynaptic fashion into the interneuronal space of the central nervous system (CNS), at the level of the neuropiles of the cerebral ganglia and of the cerebral commissure. This release occurs by exocytosis from nonsynaptic release sites. It is proposed that the tentacle sensory system not only (synaptically) controls LGC activity but also influences other, remote neuronal targets in the CNS in a nonsynaptic ("at long distance," "paracrine," "hormone-like") fashion. Already in newly hatched snails (with a shell height of 1 mm) S2 axons show a fair rate of exocytotic activity, in both synaptic and nonsynaptic respects. During postembryonic development the secretory capacity of the S2 sensory neurons increases markedly, by increases in (1) the number of axons, (2) the size of the secretory granules, and (3) exocytosis activity. This increased capacity may meet a growing demand of the developing CNS, including the LGC, for neurochemical input from the tentacle sensory system. {\textcopyright} 1989.},
annote = {Query date: 2020-06-29 13:05:30},
author = {Roubos, E. W. and Smeets, J. S.},
doi = {10.1016/0016-6480(89)90029-4},
issn = {10956840},
journal = {General and Comparative Endocrinology},
number = {1},
pages = {29--40},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Secretory activity and postembryonic development of the tentacle sensory system controlling growth hormone-producing neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis}},
url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016648089900294},
volume = {76},
year = {1989}
}

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