Morphology of thermoplastic elastomers: Elastomeric polypropylene. Scḧonherr, H; Wiyatno, W; Pople, J; Frank; W, C; Fuller; G, G; Gast; P, A; Waymouth; and M, R Macromolecules, 35(7):2654--2666, 2002.
Morphology of thermoplastic elastomers: Elastomeric polypropylene [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The morphology of low-density (0.86 g/cm 3), low-crystallinity (10%) elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from a bis(2-arylindenyl)hafnium catalyst was investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). This thermoplastic elastomer, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibits morphologies reminiscent of classical semicrystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, crosshatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high-resolution TM-AFM. POM confirmed the presence of hedrites and spherulites. The parent ePP can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities ([mmmm]%: 21%-76%) and crystallinities (1%-40% as determined by DSC and WAXS) but more similar molecular mass (M w: 147-432 kg/mol) and polydispersity (M w/M n: 2.1-2.5). The analysis of the morphologies of these fractions revealed large hierarchical structures for all but the lowest crystallinity fraction and crosshatching typical of the $α$-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all fractions. The solubility of the corresponding fractions in ether and heptane combined with new evidence for crystals with melting temperatures higher than 100 \$\backslash$textdegree\C in all of the fractions is most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences in ePP.
@article{ Schonherr:2002wr,
  abstract = {The morphology of low-density (0.86 g/cm 3), low-crystallinity (10%) elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from a bis(2-arylindenyl)hafnium catalyst was investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). This thermoplastic elastomer, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibits morphologies reminiscent of classical semicrystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, crosshatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high-resolution TM-AFM. POM confirmed the presence of hedrites and spherulites. The parent ePP can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities ([mmmm]%: 21%-76%) and crystallinities (1%-40% as determined by DSC and WAXS) but more similar molecular mass (M w: 147-432 kg/mol) and polydispersity (M w/M n: 2.1-2.5). The analysis of the morphologies of these fractions revealed large hierarchical structures for all but the lowest crystallinity fraction and crosshatching typical of the $α$-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all fractions. The solubility of the corresponding fractions in ether and heptane combined with new evidence for crystals with melting temperatures higher than 100 \{$\backslash$textdegree\}C in all of the fractions is most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences in ePP.},
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  author = {Scḧ{o}nherr, H and Wiyatno, W and Pople, J and Frank, C W and Fuller, G G and Gast, A P and Waymouth, R M},
  journal = {Macromolecules},
  number = {7},
  pages = {2654--2666},
  title = {{Morphology of thermoplastic elastomers: Elastomeric polypropylene}},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0037177318\&partnerID=40\&md5=ae31a8b39be0ae98700a4d2753dc1ed4},
  volume = {35},
  year = {2002}
}
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