Development characteristics of drag-reducing surfactant solution flow in a duct. Suzuki, H, Fuller, G, G, Nakayama, T, & Usui, H Rheol Acta, 43(3):232--239, 2004.
Development characteristics of drag-reducing surfactant solution flow in a duct [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Development characteristics of dilute cationic surfactant solution flow have been studied through the measurements of the time characteristics of surfactant solution by birefringence experiments and of the streamwise mean velocity profiles of surfactant solution duct flow by a laser Doppler velocimetry system. For both experiments, the concentration of cationic surfactant (oleylbishydroxy methylethylammonium chloride: Ethoquad O/12) was kept constant at 1000 ppm and the molar ratio of the counter ion of sodium salicylate to the surfactants was at 1.5. From the birefringence experiments, dilute surfactant solution shows very long retardation time corresponding to micellar shear induced structure formation. This causes very slow flow development of surfactant solution in a duct. Even at the end of the test section with the distance of 112 times of hydraulic diameter form the inlet, the flow is not fully developed but still has the developing boundary layer characteristics on the duct wall. From the time characteristics and the boundary layer development, it is concluded that the entry length of 1000 to 2000 times hydraulic diameter is required for fully developed surfactant solution flow. \$\backslash$textcopyright\ Springer-Verlag 2004.
@article{ Suzuki:2004wg,
  abstract = {Development characteristics of dilute cationic surfactant solution flow have been studied through the measurements of the time characteristics of surfactant solution by birefringence experiments and of the streamwise mean velocity profiles of surfactant solution duct flow by a laser Doppler velocimetry system. For both experiments, the concentration of cationic surfactant (oleylbishydroxy methylethylammonium chloride: Ethoquad O/12) was kept constant at 1000 ppm and the molar ratio of the counter ion of sodium salicylate to the surfactants was at 1.5. From the birefringence experiments, dilute surfactant solution shows very long retardation time corresponding to micellar shear induced structure formation. This causes very slow flow development of surfactant solution in a duct. Even at the end of the test section with the distance of 112 times of hydraulic diameter form the inlet, the flow is not fully developed but still has the developing boundary layer characteristics on the duct wall. From the time characteristics and the boundary layer development, it is concluded that the entry length of 1000 to 2000 times hydraulic diameter is required for fully developed surfactant solution flow. \{$\backslash$textcopyright\} Springer-Verlag 2004.},
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  author = {Suzuki, H and Fuller, G G and Nakayama, T and Usui, H},
  journal = {Rheol Acta},
  number = {3},
  pages = {232--239},
  title = {{Development characteristics of drag-reducing surfactant solution flow in a duct}},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-2542569485\&partnerID=40\&md5=c55403cb080a10f612939aeb2f3752de},
  volume = {43},
  year = {2004}
}

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