The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2--LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. The GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team J. Climate, 17(24):4641-4673, 2004.
The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2--LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2--LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to E1 Niño-- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2--LM2 integration was performed according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2--LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-- LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden--Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2--LM2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2--LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO.
@article{am2:2004,
	Abstract = {The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2--LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to E1 Ni{\~n}o-- Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
One AM2--LM2 integration was performed according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2--LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-- LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden--Julian oscillation.
An ensemble of 10 AM2--LM2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2--LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO.},
	Annote = {doi: 10.1175/JCLI-3223.1

Team Members:
JEFFREY L. ANDERSON, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey; V. BALAJI, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 
Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; ANTHONY J. BROCCOLI, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New 
Jersey (Current affiliation: Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New 
Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey); WILLIAM F. COOKE, RS Information Systems, McLean, Virginia (Current 
affiliation: NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey); THOMAS L. DELWORTH, KEITH W. DIXON, LEO J. DONNER, 
NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey; KRISTA A. DUNNE, U.S. Geological Survey, Princeton, New Jersey; 
STUART M. FREIDENREICH, STEPHEN T. GARNER, RICHARD G. GUDGEL, C. T. GORDON, ISAAC M. HELD, 
RICHARD S. HEMLER, LARRY W. HOROWITZ, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey; STEPHEN A. KLEIN, 
NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey (Current affiliation: Atmospheric Science Division, Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory, Livermore, California); THOMAS R. KNUTSON, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey; 
PAUL J. KUSHNER, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey (Current affiliation: Department of Physics, 
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); AMY R. LANGENHOST, RS Information Systems, McLean, 
Virginia (Current affiliation: NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey); NGAR-CHEUNG LAU, NOAA/GFDL, 
Princeton, New Jersey; ZHI LIANG, RS Information Systems, McLean, Virginia (Current affiliation: NOAA/ 
GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey); SERGEY L. MALYSHEV, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; P. C. D. MILLY, U.S. Geological Survey, Princeton, New Jersey; 
MARY J. NATH, JEFFREY J. PLOSHAY, V. RAMASWAMY, M. DANIEL SCHWARZKOPF, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, 
New Jersey; ELENA SHEVLIAKOVA, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, 
Princeton, New Jersey; JOSEPH J. SIRUTIS, BRIAN J. SODEN, WILLIAM F. STERN, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New 
Jersey; LORI A. THOMPSON, RS Information Systems, McLean, Virginia (Current affiliation: NOAA/GFDL, 
Princeton, New Jersey); R. JOHN WILSON, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey; ANDREW T. WITTENBERG, 
Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; BRUCE L. WYMAN, 
NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, New Jersey 
},
	Author = {{The GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team}},
	Date-Added = {2006-01-20 14:59:02 -0800},
	Date-Modified = {2007-05-30 22:12:17 -0700},
	Journal = jc,
	Number = {24},
	Pages = {4641-4673},
	Title = {The new {GFDL} global atmosphere and land model {AM}2--{LM}2: {E}valuation with prescribed {SST} simulations},
	Url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175%2FJCLI-3223.1},
	Volume = {17},
	Year = {2004},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3223.1}}

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