Delimiting perceptual cues used for the ethnic labeling of African American and European American voices. Thomas, E R and Reaser, J Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(1):54-87.
abstract   bibtex   
A review of speech identification studies examining the abilities of listeners to distinguish African American and European American voices shows that Americans can recognize many African American voices with a high degree of accuracy even in the absence of stereotypical morphosyntactic and lexical features. Experiments to determine what cues listeners use to distinguish ethnicity have not yielded such consistent results, perhaps suggesting that listeners may access a wide variety of cues if necessary. An experiment involving African Americans with features of a European American vernacular demonstrated that African Americans with atypical features are difficult for listeners to identify. Analysis suggested that vowel quality and intonation could have misled respondents but did not rule out timing and voice quality as factors in identification.
@article{thomas_delimiting_2004,
	Author = {Thomas, E R and Reaser, J},
	Date = {2004},
	Date-Modified = {2016-09-24 18:56:16 +0000},
	Journal = {Journal of Sociolinguistics},
	Keywords = {ethnicity, interspeaker variation, phonetics, sociolinguistics, sociophonetics, speech perception},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {54-87},
	Title = {Delimiting perceptual cues used for the ethnic labeling of African American and European American voices},
	Volume = {8},
	Abstract = {A review of speech identification studies examining the abilities of listeners to distinguish African American and European American voices shows that Americans can recognize many African American voices with a high degree of accuracy even in the absence of stereotypical morphosyntactic and lexical features. Experiments to determine what cues listeners use to distinguish ethnicity have not yielded such consistent results, perhaps suggesting that listeners may access a wide variety of cues if necessary. An experiment involving African Americans with features of a European American vernacular demonstrated that African Americans with atypical features are difficult for listeners to identify. Analysis suggested that vowel quality and intonation could have misled respondents but did not rule out timing and voice quality as factors in identification.}}
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