Experimental and instrumental phonetics: History. Tillmann, H G In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, pages 374-389. Elsevier, Oxford, 2 edition.
Experimental and instrumental phonetics: History [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Phonetics as an academic discipline of modern speech science expanded during the second half of the nineteenth century. It started by systematically introducing the method of direct observation. Visual inspection of the articulatory processes of single speech sound production led to ``sound physiology'' which allowed a systematic and unambiguous definition of the categories of all existing speech sounds. When in the last decade of that century phoneticians began to use instruments for the recording of articulatory movements and acoustic speech signals, the discovery of the great variability in the realization of categorical speech sounds as graphically represented time functions became the cenral issue of phonetic research. This initiated the development of broad experimental work in the first half of the twentieth century concerned with the modification of speeh sounds and the phonetic form of words as a result of coarticulation and prosodic influences. In the middle of the 19th century in Europe, Ernst von Brücke in Austria (see Brücke, Ernst (1819--1891)) and Alexander Melville Bell in England (see Bell, Alexander Melville (1819--1905)) published their proposals for a systematic description of speech sounds on the basis of a new physiology of speech (`sound physiology'). [Brücke 1849], [Brücke 1856], [Bell 1863] and [Bell 1867]) formed part of the development of a new, scientifically based discipline for the investigation of spoken language. This had more than one reason, as will become apparent below. One of these reasons needs to be mentioned immediately, however, since it also gave rise to the academic name of the new discipline. The word `phonetic' seems to have been used for the first time in the modern sense in 1797 by the Danish Egyptologist George Zoega. In his dissertation De origine et usu obeliscorum published in Rome, he used the adjective phoneticus in connection with the question as to what sound forms in ancient Egypt the hieroglyphic signs on the obelisks stood for. The term was established in Europe 25 years later when Champollion (see Champollion, Jean-François (1790--1832)) succeeded in deciphering the hieroglyphic writing system. His solution concerning l'alphabet des hiéroglyphes phonétiques employés par les Égyptiens was a sensation, and more and more authors in Europe who dealt with the spoken form of languages and at the same time wanted to stress the specific differences between the spoken and written forms of languages decided to use the adjective `phonetic' in the new sense. Early modern speech science had four important sources: the academic development of historical linguistics and comparative philology, both themselves embedded in the evolution of modern sciences, especially the natural sciences; a new public interest in the distinction between written and spoken language, which was motivated in particular by the increasing attention given to the learning and teaching of foreign languages; the cultural need for orthographic reform and standardization of writing, especially true at that time of German and English; and finally the politically and economically inspired interest in developing orthographies for still unwritten languages in the new colonies.
@incollection{tillmann_experimental_2006,
	Address = {Oxford},
	Author = {Tillmann, H G},
	Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Language \& Linguistics},
	Date = {2006},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-04 10:07:42 +0000},
	Edition = {2},
	Editor = {Brown, Keith},
	File = {Attachment:files/11023/Tillmann - 2006 - Experimental and instrumental phonetics History.pdf:application/pdf},
	Isbn = {978-0-08-044854-1},
	Keywords = {history, phonetics},
	Pages = {374-389},
	Publisher = {Elsevier},
	Title = {Experimental and instrumental phonetics: History},
	Url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080448542000031},
	Abstract = {Phonetics as an academic discipline of modern speech science expanded during the second half of the nineteenth century. It started by systematically introducing the method of direct observation. Visual inspection of the articulatory processes of single speech sound production led to ``sound physiology'' which allowed a systematic and unambiguous definition of the categories of all existing speech sounds. When in the last decade of that century phoneticians began to use instruments for the recording of articulatory movements and acoustic speech signals, the discovery of the great variability in the realization of categorical speech sounds as graphically represented time functions became the cenral issue of phonetic research. This initiated the development of broad experimental work in the first half of the twentieth century concerned with the modification of speeh sounds and the phonetic form of words as a result of coarticulation and prosodic influences. In the middle of the 19th century in Europe, Ernst von Brücke in Austria (see Brücke, Ernst (1819--1891)) and Alexander Melville Bell in England (see Bell, Alexander Melville (1819--1905)) published their proposals for a systematic description of speech sounds on the basis of a new physiology of speech (`sound physiology'). [Brücke 1849], [Brücke 1856], [Bell 1863] and [Bell 1867]) formed part of the development of a new, scientifically based discipline for the investigation of spoken language. This had more than one reason, as will become apparent below. One of these reasons needs to be mentioned immediately, however, since it also gave rise to the academic name of the new discipline. The word `phonetic' seems to have been used for the first time in the modern sense in 1797 by the Danish Egyptologist George Zoega. In his dissertation De origine et usu obeliscorum published in Rome, he used the adjective phoneticus in connection with the question as to what sound forms in ancient Egypt the hieroglyphic signs on the obelisks stood for. The term was established in Europe 25 years later when Champollion (see Champollion, Jean-François (1790--1832)) succeeded in deciphering the hieroglyphic writing system. His solution concerning l'alphabet des hiéroglyphes phonétiques employés par les Égyptiens was a sensation, and more and more authors in Europe who dealt with the spoken form of languages and at the same time wanted to stress the specific differences between the spoken and written forms of languages decided to use the adjective `phonetic' in the new sense. Early modern speech science had four important sources: the academic development of historical linguistics and comparative philology, both themselves embedded in the evolution of modern sciences, especially the natural sciences; a new public interest in the distinction between written and spoken language, which was motivated in particular by the increasing attention given to the learning and teaching of foreign languages; the cultural need for orthographic reform and standardization of writing, especially true at that time of German and English; and finally the politically and economically inspired interest in developing orthographies for still unwritten languages in the new colonies.},
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