Apraxia of speech in patients with Broca's aphasia: A study of phoneme production accuracy and error patterns. Trost, J. E. and Canter, G. J Brain and Language, 1(1):63-79.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Phonetic analyses were made of the articulatory errors of ten Broca's aphasics with apraxia of speech. Presentation mode, phoneme position, and phoneme frequency-of-occurrence were related to phoneme difficulty. Consonant clusters were more difficult than consonant singletons; vowels were easiest. Substitution, addition, and compound errors predominated, while distortions and omissions were much less frequent. A subphonemic feature analysis of substitution and distortion errors showed a majority of errors to be close approximations to target phonemes.
@article{trost_apraxia_1974,
	Author = {Trost, Judith E. and Canter, Gerald J},
	Date = {1974},
	Date-Modified = {2017-04-19 08:04:09 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1016/0093-934X(74)90026-1},
	Issn = {0093934X},
	Journal = {Brain and Language},
	Keywords = {aphasia, apraxia, clinical, clinical phonetics, clinical phonology},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {63-79},
	Pmid = {553},
	Title = {Apraxia of speech in patients with Broca's aphasia: A study of phoneme production accuracy and error patterns},
	Volume = {1},
	Abstract = {Phonetic analyses were made of the articulatory errors of ten Broca's aphasics with apraxia of speech. Presentation mode, phoneme position, and phoneme frequency-of-occurrence were related to phoneme difficulty. Consonant clusters were more difficult than consonant singletons; vowels were easiest. Substitution, addition, and compound errors predominated, while distortions and omissions were much less frequent. A subphonemic feature analysis of substitution and distortion errors showed a majority of errors to be close approximations to target phonemes.},
	Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(74)90026-1}}
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