Central and Peripheral Expression of Genes Coding for Egg-Laying Inducing and Insulin-Related Peptides in a Snail. van Minnen, J., Smit, A. B., & Joosse, J. Archives of Histology and Cytology, 52(Suppl.):241–252, jstage.jst.go.jp, 1989.
Central and Peripheral Expression of Genes Coding for Egg-Laying Inducing and Insulin-Related Peptides in a Snail [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Egg laying in the hermaphrodite freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis is a highly complex activity, including a series of internal activities (ovulation, egg and egg mass formation) which are closely correlated to a pattern of behaviours (alteration of locomotion and feeding, specific postures, oviposition). In this snail egg laying is induced by the neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs), consisting of two homogeneous clusters at a total of 100 neurons. At egg laying these neurons release their products during a 60 min period of firing. The genes coding for these products have been cloned and characterized. There are two genes, CDCH-I and -II. Each gene codes for 12 peptides; one of these is the ovulation hormone (CDCH). The genes display over 90% homology. The most striking difference is a 17 bp deletion near the carboxy-terminal region. With immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization both CDCH genes appeared to be expressed in the CDC and in paired groups of ectopic CDC-like neurons in the pleural ganglia, while a group of small neurons in the cerebral ganglia expresses the CDCH-I gene only. In addition, a widespread expression of the CDCH genes has been demonstrated in peripheral tissues. In the female part of the reproductive tract neurons were found to express the CDCH-I gene. In the male part of the tract exocrine secretory cells express the CDCH-I or -II gene. The gene products are secreted into the male tract and transferred to the female partner during copulation. Finally, sensory neurons in the head skin and mantle edge were found to express the CDCH-I gene. The presence of insulin-related peptides has been demonstrated in the brain as well as the digestive system of Lymnaea. The brain insulin-related peptides are produced in 4 groups of 50 giant neurons each (Light green cells, LGC). These neurons are involved in various physiological activities, related to body growth and glycogen metabolism. The major gene products expressed in the LGC have been cloned and characterized. It appeared that the predicted proteins represent three types of insulin-related molecules (MIP, mollus-can insulin-related peptide). In these MIPs, those elements important in the determination of the tertiary structure, have been conserved. The MIP of the digestive system has been characterized up to now only at the peptide level. The snail gut MIP is more hydrophobic compared to bovine insulin. Cells containing MIP have been identified immunocytochemically in the gut epithelium. \textcopyright 1989, International Society of Histology and Cytology. All rights reserved.
@article{pop00448,
abstract = {Egg laying in the hermaphrodite freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis is a highly complex activity, including a series of internal activities (ovulation, egg and egg mass formation) which are closely correlated to a pattern of behaviours (alteration of locomotion and feeding, specific postures, oviposition). In this snail egg laying is induced by the neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs), consisting of two homogeneous clusters at a total of 100 neurons. At egg laying these neurons release their products during a 60 min period of firing. The genes coding for these products have been cloned and characterized. There are two genes, CDCH-I and -II. Each gene codes for 12 peptides; one of these is the ovulation hormone (CDCH). The genes display over 90{\%} homology. The most striking difference is a 17 bp deletion near the carboxy-terminal region. With immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization both CDCH genes appeared to be expressed in the CDC and in paired groups of ectopic CDC-like neurons in the pleural ganglia, while a group of small neurons in the cerebral ganglia expresses the CDCH-I gene only. In addition, a widespread expression of the CDCH genes has been demonstrated in peripheral tissues. In the female part of the reproductive tract neurons were found to express the CDCH-I gene. In the male part of the tract exocrine secretory cells express the CDCH-I or -II gene. The gene products are secreted into the male tract and transferred to the female partner during copulation. Finally, sensory neurons in the head skin and mantle edge were found to express the CDCH-I gene. The presence of insulin-related peptides has been demonstrated in the brain as well as the digestive system of Lymnaea. The brain insulin-related peptides are produced in 4 groups of 50 giant neurons each (Light green cells, LGC). These neurons are involved in various physiological activities, related to body growth and glycogen metabolism. The major gene products expressed in the LGC have been cloned and characterized. It appeared that the predicted proteins represent three types of insulin-related molecules (MIP, mollus-can insulin-related peptide). In these MIPs, those elements important in the determination of the tertiary structure, have been conserved. The MIP of the digestive system has been characterized up to now only at the peptide level. The snail gut MIP is more hydrophobic compared to bovine insulin. Cells containing MIP have been identified immunocytochemically in the gut epithelium. {\textcopyright} 1989, International Society of Histology and Cytology. All rights reserved.},
annote = {Query date: 2020-06-29 13:05:30},
author = {van Minnen, J. and Smit, A. B. and Joosse, J.},
doi = {10.1679/aohc.52.Suppl_241},
issn = {13491717},
journal = {Archives of Histology and Cytology},
number = {Suppl.},
pages = {241--252},
publisher = {jstage.jst.go.jp},
title = {{Central and Peripheral Expression of Genes Coding for Egg-Laying Inducing and Insulin-Related Peptides in a Snail}},
url = {https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/aohc1988/52/Supplement/52{\_}Supplement{\_}241/{\_}article/-char/ja/},
volume = {52},
year = {1989}
}

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