Ethidium Probing of the Parallel Double- and Four-Stranded Structures Formed by the Telomeric DNA Sequences dG(GT)4G and d(GT)5. a Beschetnova, I., Kaluzhny, D. N, a Livshits, M., Shchyolkina, A. K, & Borisova, O. F July 2003.
abstract   bibtex   
Oligonucleotides 3'-d(GT)(5)-(CH(2)CH(2)O)(3)-d(GT)(5)-3' (parGT), containing GT repeats present in the telomeric DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, had been demonstrated to form bimolecular structure, GT-quadruplex (qGT) [O. F. Borisova et al. FEBS Letters 306, 140-142 (1992)]. Four d(GT)(5) strands of the GT-quadruplex are parallel and form five G-quartets while thymines are bulged out. The four GT repeats when flanked by guanines, 3'-dG(TG)(4)G-(CH(2)CH(2)O)(3)-dG(GT)(4)G-3' (hp-GT), had been shown to form a novel parallel-stranded (ps) double helix with G.G and T.T base pairs (hp-GT ps-DNA) [A. K. Shchyolkina et al. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 18, 493-503 (2001)]. In the present study the intercalator ethidium bromide (Et) was used for probing the two structures. The mode of Et binding and its effect on thermostability of qGT and hp-GT were compared. The quantum yield (q) and the fluorescence lifetime (tau) of Et:qGT (q = 0.15 +/- 0.01 and tau = 24 +/- 1 ns) and Et:hp-GT (q = 0.10 +/- 0.01 and tau = 16.5 +/- 1 ns) indicative of intercalation mode of Et binding were determined. Et binding to qGT was found to be cooperative with corresponding coefficient omega = 3.9 +/- 0.1 and the binding constant Kappa = (6.4 +/- 0.1).10(4) M(-1). The maximum number of Et molecules intercalating into GT-quadruplex is as high as twice the number of innerspaces between G-quartets (eight in our case). The data conform to the model of Et association with GT-quadruplex suggested earlier [O. F. Borisova et al. Mol. Biol. (Russ) 35, 732-739 (2001)]. The anticooperative type of Et binding was observed in case of hp-GT ps-DNA, with the maximum number of bound Et molecules, N = 4 / 5, and the association constant Kappa = (1.5 +/- 0.1).10(5) M(-1). Thermodynamic parameters of formation of Et:qGT and EtBr:hp-GT complexes were calculated from UV thermal denaturation profiles.
@generic{Beschetnova2003,
  title = {Ethidium Probing of the Parallel Double- and Four-Stranded Structures Formed by the Telomeric {{DNA}} Sequences {{dG}}({{GT}}){{4G}} and d({{GT}})5.},
  author = {a Beschetnova, Irina and Kaluzhny, Dmitry N and a Livshits, Mikhail and Shchyolkina, Anna K and Borisova, Olga F},
  year = {2003},
  month = jul,
  journal = {Journal of biomolecular structure \& dynamics},
  volume = {20},
  number = {6},
  eprint = {12744708},
  eprinttype = {pubmed},
  pages = {789--99},
  issn = {0739-1102},
  abstract = {Oligonucleotides 3'-d(GT)(5)-(CH(2)CH(2)O)(3)-d(GT)(5)-3' (parGT), containing GT repeats present in the telomeric DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, had been demonstrated to form bimolecular structure, GT-quadruplex (qGT) [O. F. Borisova et al. FEBS Letters 306, 140-142 (1992)]. Four d(GT)(5) strands of the GT-quadruplex are parallel and form five G-quartets while thymines are bulged out. The four GT repeats when flanked by guanines, 3'-dG(TG)(4)G-(CH(2)CH(2)O)(3)-dG(GT)(4)G-3' (hp-GT), had been shown to form a novel parallel-stranded (ps) double helix with G.G and T.T base pairs (hp-GT ps-DNA) [A. K. Shchyolkina et al. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 18, 493-503 (2001)]. In the present study the intercalator ethidium bromide (Et) was used for probing the two structures. The mode of Et binding and its effect on thermostability of qGT and hp-GT were compared. The quantum yield (q) and the fluorescence lifetime (tau) of Et:qGT (q = 0.15 +/- 0.01 and tau = 24 +/- 1 ns) and Et:hp-GT (q = 0.10 +/- 0.01 and tau = 16.5 +/- 1 ns) indicative of intercalation mode of Et binding were determined. Et binding to qGT was found to be cooperative with corresponding coefficient omega = 3.9 +/- 0.1 and the binding constant Kappa = (6.4 +/- 0.1).10(4) M(-1). The maximum number of Et molecules intercalating into GT-quadruplex is as high as twice the number of innerspaces between G-quartets (eight in our case). The data conform to the model of Et association with GT-quadruplex suggested earlier [O. F. Borisova et al. Mol. Biol. (Russ) 35, 732-739 (2001)]. The anticooperative type of Et binding was observed in case of hp-GT ps-DNA, with the maximum number of bound Et molecules, N = 4 / 5, and the association constant Kappa = (1.5 +/- 0.1).10(5) M(-1). Thermodynamic parameters of formation of Et:qGT and EtBr:hp-GT complexes were calculated from UV thermal denaturation profiles.},
  pmid = {12744708},
  keywords = {\#nosource,Animals,Base Sequence,DNA,DNA: chemistry,DNA: metabolism,Ethidium,Ethidium: metabolism,Fluorescent Dyes,Fluorescent Dyes: metabolism,G-Quadruplexes,Guanine,Guanine: chemistry,Molecular Sequence Data,Oligonucleotides,Oligonucleotides: metabolism,Spectrophotometry,Telomere,Telomere: chemistry,Temperature,Thermodynamics,Thymine,Thymine: chemistry,Ultraviolet}
}

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