Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection. Amann, A., Miekisch, W., Schubert, J., Buszewski, B., Ligor, T., Jezierski, T., Pleil, J., & Risby, T. Annual review of analytical chemistry (Palo Alto, Calif.), 7(1):455-82, 6, 2014.
Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection. [pdf]Paper  Analysis of exhaled breath for disease detection. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

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