Understanding, deriving, and computing buffer capacity. and Schock M. R.&nbsp;Urbansky, E.<nbsp>T. J. Chem. Educ., 77:1640--1644.
Understanding, deriving, and computing buffer capacity [pdf]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The concept of buffer capacity appears in varied disciplines, including bio-, geo-, analytical, and environmental chemistry, physiology, medicine, dentistry, and agriculture. Unfortunately, however, derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems to be neglected in the undergraduate analytical chemistry curriculum. In this work, we give an account of the development of the buffer capacity concept and derive the buffer capacity contribution equations for buffer systems containing mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids (and their conjugate bases) and aluminum(III), which undergoes hydrolysis. A brief review of pH is provided because pH is involved in applying buffer capacity to the real world. In addition, we discuss evaluation of the equations, numerical approximation of buffer capacity when an analytic solution is not derived, and the mathematical properties of the buffer capacity expressions.

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