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A Constraint Satisfaction Problem is defined by a set of variables and a set of constraints, each variable has a nonempty domain of possible values. Each constraint involves some subset of the variables and specifies the allowable combinations of values for that subset. A solution of the problem is defined by an assignment of values to some or all of the variables that does not violate any constraints. To solve an instance, a search tree is created and each node in the tree represents a variable of the instance. The order in which the variables are selected for instantiation changes the form of the search tree and affects the cost of finding a solution. In this paper we explore the use of a Choice Function to dynamically select from a set of variable ordering heuristics the one that best matches the current problem state in order to show an acceptable performance over a wide range of instances. The Choice Function is defined as a weighted sum of process indicators expressing the recent improvement produced by the heuristic recently used. The weights are determined by a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm in a multilevel approach. We report results where our combination of strategies outperforms the use of individual strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

@article{10.1016/j.eswa.2012.09.013, abstract = "A Constraint Satisfaction Problem is defined by a set of variables and a set of constraints, each variable has a nonempty domain of possible values. Each constraint involves some subset of the variables and specifies the allowable combinations of values for that subset. A solution of the problem is defined by an assignment of values to some or all of the variables that does not violate any constraints. To solve an instance, a search tree is created and each node in the tree represents a variable of the instance. The order in which the variables are selected for instantiation changes the form of the search tree and affects the cost of finding a solution. In this paper we explore the use of a Choice Function to dynamically select from a set of variable ordering heuristics the one that best matches the current problem state in order to show an acceptable performance over a wide range of instances. The Choice Function is defined as a weighted sum of process indicators expressing the recent improvement produced by the heuristic recently used. The weights are determined by a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm in a multilevel approach. We report results where our combination of strategies outperforms the use of individual strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.", number = "5", year = "2013", title = "Parameter tuning of a choice-function based hyperheuristic using Particle Swarm Optimization", volume = "40", pages = "1690-1695", doi = "10.1016/j.eswa.2012.09.013", journal = "Expert Systems with Applications" }

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