Phosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust and their relation to asthma and allergies of inhabitants. Araki, A., Saito, I., Kanazawa, A., Morimoto, K., Nakayama, K., Shibata, E., Tanaka, M., Takigawa, T., Yoshimura, T., Chikara, H., Saijo, Y., & Kishi, R. Indoor air, June, 2013.
Phosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust and their relation to asthma and allergies of inhabitants. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Organophosphate esters are used as additives in flame retardants and plasticizers, and they are ubiquitous in the indoor environment. Phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are present in residential dust, but few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. We measured the levels of 11 PFRs in indoor floor dust and multi-surface dust in 182 single-family dwellings in Japan. We evaluated their correlations with asthma and allergies of the inhabitants. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was detected in all samples (median value: 580 μg/g in floor dust, 111 μg/g in multi-surface dust). Tris(2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was detected at 8.69 μg/g in floor dust and 25.8 μg/g in multi-surface dust. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant associations were found between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and the presence of TCIPP and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in floor dust (per log10 -unit, odds ratio: 2.43 and 1.84, respectively). Tributyl phosphate was significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma (odds ratio: 2.85 in floor dust, 5.34 in multi-surface dust) and allergic rhinitis (odds ratio: 2.55 in multi-surface dust). PFR levels in Japan were high compared with values reported previously for Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the USA. Higher levels of PFRs in house dust were related to the inhabitants' health status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
@article{araki_phosphorus_2013,
	title = {Phosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust and their relation to asthma and allergies of inhabitants.},
	issn = {1600-0668},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23724807},
	doi = {10.1111/ina.12054},
	abstract = {Organophosphate esters are used as additives in flame retardants and plasticizers, and they are ubiquitous in the indoor environment. Phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are present in residential dust, but few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. We measured the levels of 11 PFRs in indoor floor dust and multi-surface dust in 182 single-family dwellings in Japan. We evaluated their correlations with asthma and allergies of the inhabitants. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was detected in all samples (median value: 580 μg/g in floor dust, 111 μg/g in multi-surface dust). Tris(2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was detected at 8.69 μg/g in floor dust and 25.8 μg/g in multi-surface dust. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant associations were found between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and the presence of TCIPP and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in floor dust (per log10 -unit, odds ratio: 2.43 and 1.84, respectively). Tributyl phosphate was significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma (odds ratio: 2.85 in floor dust, 5.34 in multi-surface dust) and allergic rhinitis (odds ratio: 2.55 in multi-surface dust). PFR levels in Japan were high compared with values reported previously for Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the USA. Higher levels of PFRs in house dust were related to the inhabitants' health status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.},
	journal = {Indoor air},
	author = {Araki, Atsuko and Saito, Ikue and Kanazawa, Ayako and Morimoto, Kanehisa and Nakayama, Kunio and Shibata, Eiji and Tanaka, Masatoshi and Takigawa, Tomoko and Yoshimura, Takesumi and Chikara, Hisao and Saijo, Yasuaki and Kishi, Reiko},
	month = jun,
	year = {2013},
	pmid = {23724807},
	keywords = {Flame retardants}
}

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