Has the Dutch news media acted as a policy actor in the road pricing policy debate?. Ardıç, Ö., Annema, J. A., & van Wee, B. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 57:47--63, November, 2013.
Has the Dutch news media acted as a policy actor in the road pricing policy debate? [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Abstract The media is seen as an important player in road pricing policy implementation processes. Yet, it is not clear whether the media is actually a policy actor, like politicians or interest groups, which pursues a particular policy positions. This paper empirically examines whether the Dutch news media was objective in its reporting of the Dutch road pricing policy debate (which took place between 1998 and 2010) or whether it acted as a policy actor through biased reporting. We applied Westerstahl’s Objectivity Framework to the media coverage by five leading national newspapers. Our main conclusion is that the Dutch news media was not objective and acted as a policy actor in the Dutch road pricing policy debate. Although all the newspapers violated objectivity to the same degree, they clearly adopted different policy positions. One popular newspaper was negative and the other mixed whereas all three quality newspapers were positive with the exception of one which sometimes inclined to a mixed position. All newspapers generally maintained the same position over the relatively long period of the road pricing debate.
@article{ardic_has_2013,
	title = {Has the {Dutch} news media acted as a policy actor in the road pricing policy debate?},
	volume = {57},
	issn = {0965-8564},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856413001699},
	doi = {10.1016/j.tra.2013.09.005},
	abstract = {Abstract
The media is seen as an important player in road pricing policy implementation processes. Yet, it is not clear whether the media is actually a policy actor, like politicians or interest groups, which pursues a particular policy positions. This paper empirically examines whether the Dutch news media was objective in its reporting of the Dutch road pricing policy debate (which took place between 1998 and 2010) or whether it acted as a policy actor through biased reporting. We applied Westerstahl’s Objectivity Framework to the media coverage by five leading national newspapers. Our main conclusion is that the Dutch news media was not objective and acted as a policy actor in the Dutch road pricing policy debate. Although all the newspapers violated objectivity to the same degree, they clearly adopted different policy positions. One popular newspaper was negative and the other mixed whereas all three quality newspapers were positive with the exception of one which sometimes inclined to a mixed position. All newspapers generally maintained the same position over the relatively long period of the road pricing debate.},
	urldate = {2013-11-01},
	journal = {Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice},
	author = {Ardıç, Özgül and Annema, Jan Anne and van Wee, Bert},
	month = nov,
	year = {2013},
	keywords = {Media bias, Objectivity, Policy actor, Policy debate, Road pricing},
	pages = {47--63},
	file = {ScienceDirect Full Text PDF:files/8951/Ardıç et al. - 2013 - Has the Dutch news media acted as a policy actor i.pdf:application/pdf;ScienceDirect Snapshot:files/8904/S0965856413001699.html:text/html}
}

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