On the theory of reactive mixtures for modeling biological growth. Ateshian, G., a. *Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology*, 6(6):423-45, 11, 2007. Paper Website abstract bibtex Mixture theory, which can combine continuum theories for the motion and deformation of solids and fluids with general principles of chemistry, is well suited for modeling the complex responses of biological tissues, including tissue growth and remodeling, tissue engineering, mechanobiology of cells and a variety of other active processes. A comprehensive presentation of the equations of reactive mixtures of charged solid and fluid constituents is lacking in the biomechanics literature. This study provides the conservation laws and entropy inequality, as well as interface jump conditions, for reactive mixtures consisting of a constrained solid mixture and multiple fluid constituents. The constituents are intrinsically incompressible and may carry an electrical charge. The interface jump condition on the mass flux of individual constituents is shown to define a surface growth equation, which predicts deposition or removal of material points from the solid matrix, complementing the description of volume growth described by the conservation of mass. A formulation is proposed for the reference configuration of a body whose material point set varies with time. State variables are defined which can account for solid matrix volume growth and remodeling. Constitutive constraints are provided on the stresses and momentum supplies of the various constituents, as well as the interface jump conditions for the electrochemical potential of the fluids. Simplifications appropriate for biological tissues are also proposed, which help reduce the governing equations into a more practical format. It is shown that explicit mechanisms of growth-induced residual stresses can be predicted in this framework.

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abstract = {Mixture theory, which can combine continuum theories for the motion and deformation of solids and fluids with general principles of chemistry, is well suited for modeling the complex responses of biological tissues, including tissue growth and remodeling, tissue engineering, mechanobiology of cells and a variety of other active processes. A comprehensive presentation of the equations of reactive mixtures of charged solid and fluid constituents is lacking in the biomechanics literature. This study provides the conservation laws and entropy inequality, as well as interface jump conditions, for reactive mixtures consisting of a constrained solid mixture and multiple fluid constituents. The constituents are intrinsically incompressible and may carry an electrical charge. The interface jump condition on the mass flux of individual constituents is shown to define a surface growth equation, which predicts deposition or removal of material points from the solid matrix, complementing the description of volume growth described by the conservation of mass. A formulation is proposed for the reference configuration of a body whose material point set varies with time. State variables are defined which can account for solid matrix volume growth and remodeling. Constitutive constraints are provided on the stresses and momentum supplies of the various constituents, as well as the interface jump conditions for the electrochemical potential of the fluids. Simplifications appropriate for biological tissues are also proposed, which help reduce the governing equations into a more practical format. It is shown that explicit mechanisms of growth-induced residual stresses can be predicted in this framework.},
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author = {Ateshian, Gerard a},
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