Morphology and Life Cycle of Marchalina Hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) on Pine (Parnis Mt.) and Fir (Helmos Mt.) Forests of Greece. Bacandritsos, N.; Saitanis, C.; and Papanastasiou, I. 40(2):169–176.
Morphology and Life Cycle of Marchalina Hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) on Pine (Parnis Mt.) and Fir (Helmos Mt.) Forests of Greece [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a scale insect, endemic in pine (Pinus halepensis) forests of Greece and other Mediterranean countries, which plays a major role in the production of honeydew honey. We investigated the morphological and the biological characteristics of M. hellenica in the pine forests of Mt. Parnis in comparison with those in the high-altitude fir (Abies cephalonica) forest of Mt. Helmos where it has been recently established, after anthropogenic intervention. Morphologically, the final body size of the 1st instar and the adult stages of M. hellenica in the fir forest were equal to those in the pine forest. Biologically, in the fir forest, the insect exhibited a long 1st instar?s period, which was the stage of its overwintering. In the pine forest, the 1st instar period was short and the insect overwinters in the stage of 2nd instar. The number of eggs per female in the fir forest was quite low (25?145) compared with the number of eggs in the pine forest (200?300). Concerning the qualitative parameters of the resulting honeydew-honey, statistically significant differences were found in Diastase and HMF (p $<$ 0.0001). No difference was found in sucrose, fructose + glucose and water content, neither to electrical conductivity and total acidity. All values were within the EU limits (EU Directive 2001).
@article{bacandritsosMorphologyLifeCycle2004,
  title = {Morphology and Life Cycle of {{Marchalina}} Hellenica ({{Gennadius}}) ({{Hemiptera}}: {{Margarodidae}}) on Pine ({{Parnis Mt}}.) and Fir ({{Helmos Mt}}.) Forests of {{Greece}}},
  author = {Bacandritsos, Nicolaos and Saitanis, Costas and Papanastasiou, Iosif},
  date = {2004-01},
  journaltitle = {Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.)},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {169--176},
  doi = {10.1080/00379271.2004.10697413},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2004.10697413},
  abstract = {Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a scale insect, endemic in pine (Pinus halepensis) forests of Greece and other Mediterranean countries, which plays a major role in the production of honeydew honey. We investigated the morphological and the biological characteristics of M. hellenica in the pine forests of Mt. Parnis in comparison with those in the high-altitude fir (Abies cephalonica) forest of Mt. Helmos where it has been recently established, after anthropogenic intervention. Morphologically, the final body size of the 1st instar and the adult stages of M. hellenica in the fir forest were equal to those in the pine forest. Biologically, in the fir forest, the insect exhibited a long 1st instar?s period, which was the stage of its overwintering. In the pine forest, the 1st instar period was short and the insect overwinters in the stage of 2nd instar. The number of eggs per female in the fir forest was quite low (25?145) compared with the number of eggs in the pine forest (200?300). Concerning the qualitative parameters of the resulting honeydew-honey, statistically significant differences were found in Diastase and HMF (p {$<$} 0.0001). No difference was found in sucrose, fructose + glucose and water content, neither to electrical conductivity and total acidity. All values were within the EU limits (EU Directive 2001).},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13527583,~to-add-doi-URL,abies-cephalonica,forest-resources,hellenica,honey,honeydew,marchalina,pinus-halepensis},
  number = {2}
}
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