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We present a new graphical calculus that is sound and complete for a universal family of quantum circuits, which can be seen as the natural string-diagrammatic extension of the approximately (real-valued) universal family of Hadamard+CCZ circuits. The diagrammatic language is generated by two kinds of nodes: the so-called 'spider' associated with the computational basis, as well as a new arity-N generalisation of the Hadamard gate, which satisfies a variation of the spider fusion law. Unlike previous graphical calculi, this admits compact encodings of non-linear classical functions. For example, the AND gate can be depicted as a diagram of just 2 generators, compared to \textasciitilde25 in the ZX-calculus. Consequently, N-controlled gates, hypergraph states, Hadamard+Toffoli circuits, and diagonal circuits at arbitrary levels of the Clifford hierarchy also enjoy encodings with low constant overhead. This suggests that this calculus will be significantly more convenient for reasoning about the interplay between classical non-linear behaviour (e.g. in an oracle) and purely quantum operations. After presenting the calculus, we will prove it is sound and complete for universal quantum computation by demonstrating the reduction of any diagram to an easily describable normal form.

@article{backens_zh:_2019, title = {{ZH}: {A} {Complete} {Graphical} {Calculus} for {Quantum} {Computations} {Involving} {Classical} {Non}-linearity}, volume = {287}, issn = {2075-2180}, shorttitle = {{ZH}}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.02175}, doi = {10/ggc8n4}, abstract = {We present a new graphical calculus that is sound and complete for a universal family of quantum circuits, which can be seen as the natural string-diagrammatic extension of the approximately (real-valued) universal family of Hadamard+CCZ circuits. The diagrammatic language is generated by two kinds of nodes: the so-called 'spider' associated with the computational basis, as well as a new arity-N generalisation of the Hadamard gate, which satisfies a variation of the spider fusion law. Unlike previous graphical calculi, this admits compact encodings of non-linear classical functions. For example, the AND gate can be depicted as a diagram of just 2 generators, compared to {\textasciitilde}25 in the ZX-calculus. Consequently, N-controlled gates, hypergraph states, Hadamard+Toffoli circuits, and diagonal circuits at arbitrary levels of the Clifford hierarchy also enjoy encodings with low constant overhead. This suggests that this calculus will be significantly more convenient for reasoning about the interplay between classical non-linear behaviour (e.g. in an oracle) and purely quantum operations. After presenting the calculus, we will prove it is sound and complete for universal quantum computation by demonstrating the reduction of any diagram to an easily describable normal form.}, urldate = {2019-11-20}, journal = {Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science}, author = {Backens, Miriam and Kissinger, Aleks}, month = jan, year = {2019}, note = {ZSCC: NoCitationData[s0] arXiv: 1805.02175}, keywords = {Quantum Physics}, pages = {23--42} }

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