A Hierarchical O(N Log N) Force-Calculation Algorithm. Barnes, J. and Hut, P. 324(6096):446–449.
A Hierarchical O(N Log N) Force-Calculation Algorithm [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Until recently the gravitational N-body problem has been modelled numerically either by direct integration, in which the computation needed increases as N 2, or by an iterative potential method in which the number of operations grows as N log N. Here we describe a novel method of directly calculating the force on N bodies that grows only as N log N. The technique uses a tree-structured hierarchical subdivision of space into cubic cells, each of which is recursively divided into eight subcells whenever more than one particle is found to occupy the same cell. This tree is constructed anew at every time step, avoiding ambiguity and tangling. Advantages over potential-solving codes are: accurate local interactions; freedom from geometrical assumptions and restrictions; and applicability to a wide class of systems, including (proto-)planetary, stellar, galactic and cosmological ones. Advantages over previous hierarchical tree-codes include simplicity and the possibility of rigorous analysis of error. Although we concentrate here on stellar dynamical applications, our techniques of efficiently handling a large number of long-range interactions and concentrating computational effort where most needed have potential applications in other areas of astrophysics as well.
@article{barnesHierarchicalLogForcecalculation1986,
  title = {A Hierarchical {{O}}({{N}} Log {{N}}) Force-Calculation Algorithm},
  volume = {324},
  issn = {0028-0836},
  url = {http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/324446a0},
  doi = {10.1038/324446a0},
  abstract = {Until recently the gravitational N-body problem has been modelled numerically either by direct integration, in which the computation needed increases as N 2, or by an iterative potential method in which the number of operations grows as N log N. Here we describe a novel method of directly calculating the force on N bodies that grows only as N log N. The technique uses a tree-structured hierarchical subdivision of space into cubic cells, each of which is recursively divided into eight subcells whenever more than one particle is found to occupy the same cell. This tree is constructed anew at every time step, avoiding ambiguity and tangling. Advantages over potential-solving codes are: accurate local interactions; freedom from geometrical assumptions and restrictions; and applicability to a wide class of systems, including (proto-)planetary, stellar, galactic and cosmological ones. Advantages over previous hierarchical tree-codes include simplicity and the possibility of rigorous analysis of error. Although we concentrate here on stellar dynamical applications, our techniques of efficiently handling a large number of long-range interactions and concentrating computational effort where most needed have potential applications in other areas of astrophysics as well.},
  number = {6096},
  journaltitle = {Nature},
  date = {1986},
  pages = {446--449},
  author = {Barnes, Josh and Hut, Piet},
  file = {/home/dimitri/Nextcloud/Zotero/storage/JNQ3X6TP/Barnes, Hut - 1986 - A hierarchical O(N log N) force-calculation algorithm.pdf}
}
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