EEG differences in children as a function of resting-state arousal level. Barry, R. J, Clarke, A. R, McCarthy, R., Selikowitz, M., Rushby, J. A, & Ploskova, E. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(2):402–8, February, 2004.
EEG differences in children as a function of resting-state arousal level. [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the basis of a theoretical position which has major impact in the current literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) - that the ratio of theta to beta power in the EEG (the theta/beta ratio) represents central nervous system (CNS) arousal. METHODS: Resting state topographic EEG activity was investigated as a function of CNS arousal in normal right-handed boys. Arousal was defined in terms of electrodermal activity, which has a long history in Psychology as a measure of CNS arousal. RESULTS: Relative delta, theta, and beta power, and the theta/beta ratio, failed to differ significantly between age-matched groups which differed markedly in skin conductance level and non-specific electrodermal fluctuations. The high-arousal group showed significantly lower levels of relative alpha power, particularly in posterior and hemispheric regions, with higher alpha frequencies in these areas. CONCLUSIONS: These data fail to support the theoretical linkage between the theta/beta ratio and CNS arousal. Further work is needed to disentangle the different correlates of arousal and task-related activation, particularly in cognitive and attentional-processing terms. SIGNIFICANCE: The outcomes of this study, in addition to clarifying the nature of EEG markers of CNS arousal, have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD, as they require re-evaluation of current models of the disorder.
@article{barry_eeg_2004,
	title = {{EEG} differences in children as a function of resting-state arousal level.},
	volume = {115},
	issn = {1388-2457},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744583},
	abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the basis of a theoretical position which has major impact in the current literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) - that the ratio of theta to beta power in the EEG (the theta/beta ratio) represents central nervous system (CNS) arousal.

METHODS: Resting state topographic EEG activity was investigated as a function of CNS arousal in normal right-handed boys. Arousal was defined in terms of electrodermal activity, which has a long history in Psychology as a measure of CNS arousal.

RESULTS: Relative delta, theta, and beta power, and the theta/beta ratio, failed to differ significantly between age-matched groups which differed markedly in skin conductance level and non-specific electrodermal fluctuations. The high-arousal group showed significantly lower levels of relative alpha power, particularly in posterior and hemispheric regions, with higher alpha frequencies in these areas.

CONCLUSIONS: These data fail to support the theoretical linkage between the theta/beta ratio and CNS arousal. Further work is needed to disentangle the different correlates of arousal and task-related activation, particularly in cognitive and attentional-processing terms.

SIGNIFICANCE: The outcomes of this study, in addition to clarifying the nature of EEG markers of CNS arousal, have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD, as they require re-evaluation of current models of the disorder.},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2015-05-08},
	journal = {Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology},
	author = {Barry, Robert J and Clarke, Adam R and McCarthy, Rory and Selikowitz, Mark and Rushby, Jacqueline A and Ploskova, Elizabeta},
	month = feb,
	year = {2004},
	pmid = {14744583},
	keywords = {Analysis of Variance, Arousal, Arousal: physiology, Brain Mapping, Child, Electroencephalography, Electrooculography, Galvanic Skin Response, Galvanic Skin Response: physiology, Humans, Male, Rest, Rest: physiology},
	pages = {402--8},
}

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