European Databases on Invasive Alien Species. Bastrup-Birk, A. and Schuck, A. In Krumm, F. and V́ıtková, L., editors, Introduced Tree Species in European Forests: Opportunities and Challenges, pages 136–143. European Forest Institute.
European Databases on Invasive Alien Species [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] The capacity to identify and mitigate threats from invasive alien species (IAS) relies on accurate, updated and easily accessible information. This would help to synthesise risks and impacts of the most common and/or threatening IAS and to prevent and control biological invasions into European forests. [] The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (COM 2011) has dedicated an action to prevent the introduction and establishment of IAS. The EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, recently entered into force (EU 2014). An important aspect of this regulation is the adoption of a list of IAS of concern for Europe. It urges the Member States to: [] ” establish a surveillance system of invasive alien species of Union concern, or include it in their existing system, which collects and records data on the occurrence in the environment of invasive alien species by survey, monitoring or other procedures to prevent the spread of invasive alien species into or within the Union” (see Box 12). [] [...] [:Box 12 - EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species] [::The situation] At present there are estimated to be more than 12 000 alien plants, animals, fungi and micro- organisms in the European Union and in other European countries (EC 2014a). Out of those 10-15 % are considered to be invasive with their numbers increasing. By either suppressing or eliminating indigenous species, invasive alien species are considered one major contributor to biodiversity loss. It is estimated that they have cost the European economy €12 billion per year over the last 20 years (EC 2014b). They also affect a wide range of ecosystem services, infrastructures and can have serious implications for human health. [] In forest ecosystems currently 134 species (71 trees, 61 shrubs and 2 defined tree or shrub) are regarded as invasive in Europe (Rejmánek and Richardson 2013). [::Elaborating on a European Union regulation] Due to such alarming developments, along with the Member states, EU jointly elaborated on a regulation on invasive alien species. It entered into force on 1st January 2015 and is the result of an extensive consultation process, expert reviews and impact assessments (visit EC Website on 'Invasive Alien Species' for more details http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/invasivealien/). The regulation is aimed at addressing consequences resulting from invasive alien species in a holistic and comprehensive manner within the EU. It seeks to protect native biodiversity and ecosystem services, while minimising and mitigating the impacts such species may have on human health and economy. The regulation addresses only species of overall European Union concern and not as such at the regional or national levels. [::Key elements of the Regulation] List of invasive alien species of Union concern. The European Commission and EU Member States are able to propose invasive alien species to a list of invasive alien species of Union concern based on a set of criteria (see 2: 'selection criteria' below). A scientific forum then reviews the scientific robustness of the provided information while a designated committee ensures compliance with the criteria. The list will be regularly updated by either adding new species or removing such that no longer meet the criteria for inclusion on the list. The first invasive alien species list was entered into force on 3rd August 2016. Selection criteria for invasive alien species. In order to be included to the invasive alien species list of Union concern all of the following criteria need to be met: [::] they are found, based on available scientific evidence, to be alien to the territory of the Union excluding the outermost regions; [::] they are found, based on available scientific evidence, to be capable of establishing a viable population and spreading in the environment under current conditions and in foreseeable climate change conditions in one biogeographical region shared by more than two Member States or one marine sub-region excluding their outermost regions; [::] they are, based on available scientific evidence, likely to have a significant adverse impact on biodiversity or the related ecosystem services, and may also have an adverse impact on human health or the economy; [::] it is demonstrated by a risk assessment carried out pursuant to Article 5 Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 that concerted action at Union level is required to prevent their introduction, establishment or spread; [::] it is likely that the inclusion on the Union list will effectively prevent, minimise or mitigate their adverse impact. [::Intervention types] For those species that are listed as invasive the regulation foresees three types of measures based on the particular circumstances. They are described in detail under the respective 'Regulation Articles' and thus only a few key facts are listed below: [::] Prevention regulates intentional introduction, storing, breeding, transport as well as unintentional introduction. It elaborates on permits and authorisations, the establishment of a list of invasive alien species, implementation of emergency measures in case of eminent threat, action plans on pathways of invasive alien species. [::] Early detection and rapid eradication as laid out in the regulation include the establishment of surveillance systems, official controls, early detection notifications, and measures and derogations for rapid eradication at an early stage of invasion. [::] Management of established invasive alien species that are widely spread require management measures to mitigate impacts. Also the implementation of restoration measures to assist recovery of degraded or even destroyed ecosystems are part of the Regulation. [::The European Commission's financial support system] The European Commission supports action on invasive alien species through existing financing instruments. Some of the main funding instruments are: (1) the EU's financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action (LIFE); (2) Horizon 2020; (3) the EU's rural development policy (2014-2020); and (4) the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
@incollection{bastrup-birkEuropeanDatabasesInvasive2016,
  title = {European Databases on Invasive Alien Species},
  booktitle = {Introduced Tree Species in {{European}} Forests: Opportunities and Challenges},
  author = {Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie and Schuck, Andreas},
  editor = {Krumm, Frank and V́ıtková, Lucie},
  date = {2016},
  pages = {136--143},
  publisher = {{European Forest Institute}},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/14216900},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] The capacity to identify and mitigate threats from invasive alien species (IAS) relies on accurate, updated and easily accessible information. This would help to synthesise risks and impacts of the most common and/or threatening IAS and to prevent and control biological invasions into European forests.

[] The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (COM 2011) has dedicated an action to prevent the introduction and establishment of IAS. The EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, recently entered into force (EU 2014). An important aspect of this regulation is the adoption of a list of IAS of concern for Europe. It urges the Member States to:

[] ” establish a surveillance system of invasive alien species of Union concern, or include it in their existing system, which collects and records data on the occurrence in the environment of invasive alien species by survey, monitoring or other procedures to prevent the spread of invasive alien species into or within the Union” (see Box 12).

[] [...]

[:Box 12 - EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species]

[::The situation] At present there are estimated to be more than 12 000 alien plants, animals, fungi and micro- organisms in the European Union and in other European countries (EC 2014a). Out of those 10-15 \% are considered to be invasive with their numbers increasing. By either suppressing or eliminating indigenous species, invasive alien species are considered one major contributor to biodiversity loss. It is estimated that they have cost the European economy €12 billion per year over the last 20 years (EC 2014b). They also affect a wide range of ecosystem services, infrastructures and can have serious implications for human health.

[] In forest ecosystems currently 134 species (71 trees, 61 shrubs and 2 defined tree or shrub) are regarded as invasive in Europe (Rejmánek and Richardson 2013).

[::Elaborating on a European Union regulation] 

Due to such alarming developments, along with the Member states, EU jointly elaborated on a regulation on invasive alien species. It entered into force on 1st January 2015 and is the result of an extensive consultation process, expert reviews and impact assessments (visit EC Website on 'Invasive Alien Species' for more details http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/invasivealien/). The regulation is aimed at addressing consequences resulting from invasive alien species in a holistic and comprehensive manner within the EU. It seeks to protect native biodiversity and ecosystem services, while minimising and mitigating the impacts such species may have on human health and economy. The regulation addresses only species of overall European Union concern and not as such at the regional or national levels.

[::Key elements of the Regulation] 

List of invasive alien species of Union concern. The European Commission and EU Member States are able to propose invasive alien species to a list of invasive alien species of Union concern based on a set of criteria (see 2: 'selection criteria' below). A scientific forum then reviews the scientific robustness of the provided information while a designated committee ensures compliance with the criteria. The list will be regularly updated by either adding new species or removing such that no longer meet the criteria for inclusion on the list. The first invasive alien species list was entered into force on 3rd August 2016.

Selection criteria for invasive alien species. In order to be included to the invasive alien species list of Union concern all of the following criteria need to be met: [::] they are found, based on available scientific evidence, to be alien to the territory of the Union excluding the outermost regions; [::] they are found, based on available scientific evidence, to be capable of establishing a viable population and spreading in the environment under current conditions and in foreseeable climate change conditions in one biogeographical region shared by more than two Member States or one marine sub-region excluding their outermost regions; [::] they are, based on available scientific evidence, likely to have a significant adverse impact on biodiversity or the related ecosystem services, and may also have an adverse impact on human health or the economy; [::] it is demonstrated by a risk assessment carried out pursuant to Article 5 Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 that concerted action at Union level is required to prevent their introduction, establishment or spread;

[::] it is likely that the inclusion on the Union list will effectively prevent, minimise or mitigate their adverse impact.

[::Intervention types] For those species that are listed as invasive the regulation foresees three types of measures based on the particular circumstances. They are described in detail under the respective 'Regulation Articles' and thus only a few key facts are listed below:

[::] Prevention regulates intentional introduction, storing, breeding, transport as well as unintentional introduction. It elaborates on permits and authorisations, the establishment of a list of invasive alien species, implementation of emergency measures in case of eminent threat, action plans on pathways of invasive alien species.

[::] Early detection and rapid eradication as laid out in the regulation include the establishment of surveillance systems, official controls, early detection notifications, and measures and derogations for rapid eradication at an early stage of invasion.

[::] Management of established invasive alien species that are widely spread require management measures to mitigate impacts. Also the implementation of restoration measures to assist recovery of degraded or even destroyed ecosystems are part of the Regulation.

[::The European Commission's financial support system] The European Commission supports action on invasive alien species through existing financing instruments. Some of the main funding instruments are: (1) the EU's financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action (LIFE); (2) Horizon 2020; (3) the EU's rural development policy (2014-2020); and (4) the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).},
  isbn = {978-952-5980-32-5},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14216900,~to-add-doi-URL,data,europe,forest-resources,invasive-species,knowledge-integration}
}
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