Streichinstrumente des Mittelalters und der Renaissance : Bautechnische, dokumentarische und musikalische Hinweise zur Spieltechnik. Baumann, D. Music in Art : international journal for music iconography, 24(1-2):29–40, 1999.
abstract   bibtex   
Probes into the acoustical possibilities of the Western bowed string instruments from their first appearance in the 10th c. to the development of the families of the viola da braccio and the viola da gamba. The sources for the actual knowledge of their construction are the few surviving original instruments and instrument parts; the few comments on tuning and use found in theoretical writings; information included in musical sources; and, mainly, iconography and art objects depicting these instruments. Related folk instruments, their playing techniques, and their traditional construction are also considered. The sound of these bowed instruments changes from a timbre with few formant frequencies for the heavier monoblock instruments to a much richer and broader frequency spectrum for the multipiece, thin-walled, glued, shape-stabilized later instruments. In addition to these shape- and material-dependent acoustical parameters, special means for tuning frequency response of the resonance body exist, including asymmetrical bridge position, various positions and shapes of bridge and soundholes, varying thickness of the belly, and the “classical” position of two soundholes, bridge, soundpost and bassbar. Many of these sound-determining elements can be analyzed in iconographical sources.
@article{baumann_streichinstrumente_1999,
	title = {Streichinstrumente des {Mittelalters} und der {Renaissance} : {Bautechnische}, dokumentarische und musikalische {Hinweise} zur {Spieltechnik}},
	volume = {24},
	issn = {1522-7464},
	shorttitle = {Streichinstrumente des {Mittelalters} und der {Renaissance}},
	abstract = {Probes into the acoustical possibilities of the Western bowed string instruments from their first appearance in the 10th c. to the development of the families of the viola da braccio and the viola da gamba. The sources for the actual knowledge of their construction are the few surviving original instruments and instrument parts; the few comments on tuning and use found in theoretical writings; information included in musical sources; and, mainly, iconography and art objects depicting these instruments. Related folk instruments, their playing techniques, and their traditional construction are also considered. The sound of these bowed instruments changes from a timbre with few formant frequencies for the heavier monoblock instruments to a much richer and broader frequency spectrum for the multipiece, thin-walled, glued, shape-stabilized later instruments. In addition to these shape- and material-dependent acoustical parameters, special means for tuning frequency response of the resonance body exist, including asymmetrical bridge position, various positions and shapes of bridge and soundholes, varying thickness of the belly, and the “classical” position of two soundholes, bridge, soundpost and bassbar. Many of these sound-determining elements can be analyzed in iconographical sources.},
	number = {1-2},
	journal = {Music in Art : international journal for music iconography},
	author = {Baumann, Dorothea},
	year = {1999},
	keywords = {(cordes, Cordophone, frottées)},
	pages = {29--40}
}
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