Characterization of \textlessspan style="font-variant:small-caps;"\textgreaterl\textless/span\textgreater -Carnitine Metabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Bazire, P., Perchat, N., Darii, E., Lechaplais, C., Salanoubat, M., & Perret, A. Journal of Bacteriology, April, 2019.
Characterization of \textlessspan style="font-variant:small-caps;"\textgreaterl\textless/span\textgreater -Carnitine Metabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
L-Carnitine is a trimethylammonium compound mostly known for its contribution to fatty acid transport into mitochondria. In bacteria, it is synthesized from ␥-butyrobetaine (GBB) and can be used as a carbon source. L-Carnitine can be formed directly by GBB hydroxylation or synthesized via a biosynthetic route analogous to fatty acid degradation. However, this multistep pathway has not been experimentally characterized. In this work, we identified by gene context analysis a cluster of L-carnitine anabolic genes next to those involved in its catabolism and proceeded to the complete in vitro characterization of L-carnitine biosynthesis and degradation in Sinorhizobium meliloti. The five enzymes catalyzing the seven steps that convert GBB to glycine betaine are described. Metabolomic analysis confirmed the multistage synthesis of L-carnitine in GBB-grown cells but also revealed that GBB is synthesized by S. meliloti. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerobic GBB synthesis in bacteria. The conservation of L-carnitine metabolism genes in different bacterial taxonomic classes underscores the role of L-carnitine as a ubiquitous nutrient.
@article{bazire_characterization_2019,
	title = {Characterization of {\textless}span style="font-variant:small-caps;"{\textgreater}l{\textless}/span{\textgreater} -{Carnitine} {Metabolism} in {Sinorhizobium} meliloti},
	volume = {201},
	issn = {0021-9193, 1098-5530},
	shorttitle = {Characterization of {\textless}span style="font-variant},
	url = {https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JB.00772-18},
	doi = {10.1128/JB.00772-18},
	abstract = {L-Carnitine is a trimethylammonium compound mostly known for its contribution to fatty acid transport into mitochondria. In bacteria, it is synthesized from ␥-butyrobetaine (GBB) and can be used as a carbon source. L-Carnitine can be formed directly by GBB hydroxylation or synthesized via a biosynthetic route analogous to fatty acid degradation. However, this multistep pathway has not been experimentally characterized. In this work, we identified by gene context analysis a cluster of L-carnitine anabolic genes next to those involved in its catabolism and proceeded to the complete in vitro characterization of L-carnitine biosynthesis and degradation in Sinorhizobium meliloti. The five enzymes catalyzing the seven steps that convert GBB to glycine betaine are described. Metabolomic analysis confirmed the multistage synthesis of L-carnitine in GBB-grown cells but also revealed that GBB is synthesized by S. meliloti. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerobic GBB synthesis in bacteria. The conservation of L-carnitine metabolism genes in different bacterial taxonomic classes underscores the role of L-carnitine as a ubiquitous nutrient.},
	language = {en},
	number = {7},
	urldate = {2021-09-13},
	journal = {Journal of Bacteriology},
	author = {Bazire, Pascal and Perchat, Nadia and Darii, Ekaterina and Lechaplais, Christophe and Salanoubat, Marcel and Perret, Alain},
	editor = {Becker, Anke},
	month = apr,
	year = {2019},
}

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