A Geometric and Dynamic Affordance Model of Reaches-To-Grasp: Men Take Greater Risks Than Women. Bingham, G., P.; Snapp-Childs, W.; Fath, A., J.; Pan, J., S.; and Coats, R., O.
A Geometric and Dynamic Affordance Model of Reaches-To-Grasp: Men Take Greater Risks Than Women [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Mon-Williams and Bingham (2011) developed an affordance model of the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp. With a single free parameter (P), the model predicted the safety margins (SMs) exhibited in maximum grasp apertures (MGAs), during the approach of a hand to a target object, as a function of an affordance measure of object size and a functional measure of hand size. An affordance analysis revealed that object size is determined by a diagonal through the object, called the maximum object extent. Mon-Williams and Bingham provided no theoretical account for the empirically determined values of P. We now address this question. Snapp-Childs and Bingham (2009) augmented Warren's (1984) geometric affordance scaling model with a dynamical component determined by the stability of the motor performance. Because P was found to vary with the speeds of reaches, we incorporated a measure of the variability of performance into the model to yield predictions of P. We also found that P varied with gender. In respect to the size of safety margins, women were more conservative in taking risks then men. Finally, following Warren (1984), the classic paradigm for testing affordance models is to test the scaling relations with both small and large participants. We tested small-and large-handed men and small-and large-handed women and found that the new parameter free model successfully accounted for the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp.
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 title = {A Geometric and Dynamic Affordance Model of Reaches-To-Grasp: Men Take Greater Risks Than Women},
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 keywords = {Fitts' Law,affordance,perception/action,reach-to-grasp},
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 abstract = {Mon-Williams and Bingham (2011) developed an affordance model of the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp. With a single free parameter (P), the model predicted the safety margins (SMs) exhibited in maximum grasp apertures (MGAs), during the approach of a hand to a target object, as a function of an affordance measure of object size and a functional measure of hand size. An affordance analysis revealed that object size is determined by a diagonal through the object, called the maximum object extent. Mon-Williams and Bingham provided no theoretical account for the empirically determined values of P. We now address this question. Snapp-Childs and Bingham (2009) augmented Warren's (1984) geometric affordance scaling model with a dynamical component determined by the stability of the motor performance. Because P was found to vary with the speeds of reaches, we incorporated a measure of the variability of performance into the model to yield predictions of P. We also found that P varied with gender. In respect to the size of safety margins, women were more conservative in taking risks then men. Finally, following Warren (1984), the classic paradigm for testing affordance models is to test the scaling relations with both small and large participants. We tested small-and large-handed men and small-and large-handed women and found that the new parameter free model successfully accounted for the spatial structure of reaches-to-grasp.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Bingham, Geoffrey P and Snapp-Childs, Winona and Fath, Aaron J and Pan, Jing S and Coats, Rachel O}
}
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