Disability worsening among persons with multiple sclerosis and depression: A Swedish cohort study. Binzer, S., McKay, K. A., Brenner, P., Hillert, J., & Manouchehrinia, A. Neurology, 93(24):e2216–e2223, 2019.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its impact on disability worsening has not yet been determined. We explored the risk of disability worsening associated with depression in a nationwide longitudinal cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used linked data from 3 Swedish nationwide registries: the MS Register, National Patient Register, and Prescribed Drug Register. Two incident cohorts were developed: cohort 1 included all registered cases of MS in the MS Registry (2001-2014) with depression defined as ≥1 ICD-10 code for depression; and cohort 2 comprised all cases of MS in the MS Registry (2005-2014) with depression defined as ≥1 prescription filled for an antidepressant. Cox regression models were used to compare the risk of reaching sustained disability milestone scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) between persons with MS with and without depression. RESULTS: Cohort 1 included 5,875 cases; 502 (8.5%) had depression. Cohort 2 had 3,817 cases; 1,289 (33.8%) were prescribed an antidepressant. Persons with depression were at a significantly higher risk of reaching sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0, with hazard ratios of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.87), 1.79 (95% CI 1.40-2.29), and 1.89 (95% CI 1.38-2.57), respectively. A similar increased risk among persons exposed to antidepressants was observed, with hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI 1.18-1.60), 1.93 (95% CI 1.61-2.31), and 1.86 (95% CI 1.45-2.40) for sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0, respectively. CONCLUSION: Persons with MS and comorbid depression had a significantly increased risk of disability worsening. This finding highlights the need for early recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in persons with MS.
@article{binzer_disability_2019,
	title = {Disability worsening among persons with multiple sclerosis and depression: {A} {Swedish} cohort study},
	volume = {93},
	issn = {1526-632X},
	shorttitle = {Disability worsening among persons with multiple sclerosis and depression},
	doi = {10.1212/WNL.0000000000008617},
	abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its impact on disability worsening has not yet been determined. We explored the risk of disability worsening associated with depression in a nationwide longitudinal cohort.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used linked data from 3 Swedish nationwide registries: the MS Register, National Patient Register, and Prescribed Drug Register. Two incident cohorts were developed: cohort 1 included all registered cases of MS in the MS Registry (2001-2014) with depression defined as ≥1 ICD-10 code for depression; and cohort 2 comprised all cases of MS in the MS Registry (2005-2014) with depression defined as ≥1 prescription filled for an antidepressant. Cox regression models were used to compare the risk of reaching sustained disability milestone scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) between persons with MS with and without depression.
RESULTS: Cohort 1 included 5,875 cases; 502 (8.5\%) had depression. Cohort 2 had 3,817 cases; 1,289 (33.8\%) were prescribed an antidepressant. Persons with depression were at a significantly higher risk of reaching sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0, with hazard ratios of 1.50 (95\% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.87), 1.79 (95\% CI 1.40-2.29), and 1.89 (95\% CI 1.38-2.57), respectively. A similar increased risk among persons exposed to antidepressants was observed, with hazard ratios of 1.37 (95\% CI 1.18-1.60), 1.93 (95\% CI 1.61-2.31), and 1.86 (95\% CI 1.45-2.40) for sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Persons with MS and comorbid depression had a significantly increased risk of disability worsening. This finding highlights the need for early recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in persons with MS.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {24},
	journal = {Neurology},
	author = {Binzer, Stefanie and McKay, Kyla A. and Brenner, Philip and Hillert, Jan and Manouchehrinia, Ali},
	year = {2019},
	pmid = {31704791},
	pmcid = {PMC6937491},
	keywords = {MS},
	pages = {e2216--e2223}
}

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