Oak (Quercus Robur L.) Regeneration as a Response to Natural Dynamics of Stands in European Hemiboreal Zone. Bobiec, A.; Jaszcz, E.; and Wojtunik, K. 130(5):785–797.
Oak (Quercus Robur L.) Regeneration as a Response to Natural Dynamics of Stands in European Hemiboreal Zone [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration intensity was assessed in the core area of the Białowieża National Park (BNP) in Poland with respect to the selected ecological factors. The emphasis was placed on the response of oak regeneration to disturbances, including the large-scale dieback of spruce stands. Defining their effect could help predicting the role of oak in naturally developing lowland forest ecosystems in the European hemiboreal zone. The results of the study challenge the opinion that the 'lime-oak-hornbeam forest' is a 'climax' community, confirming a very poor regeneration represented by only two saplings taller than 0.5~m per hectare. By contrast, in spruce-dominated communities, from 49 to 848 taller saplings per hectare were found. The occurrence of saplings was associated with discontinuous canopy of late seral stage of stands, as well as with large gaps. Most of the best quality grown-up oak saplings developed in the immediate neighbourhood of spruce logs. The results of the research indicate that 'lime-oak-hornbeam forest' (Tilio-Carpinetum) should be rather perceived as a transient community, evolved from relict, culturally modified, oak woodlands. Because spruce had become a dominating species only after abandoning in mid-1800s the historical regime of anthropogenic disturbances (involving frequent forest fires), the observed phenomena related to the disintegration of spruce stands had probably no precedent over the last 500~years. To confirm whether the massive decline of spruce stands will finally result in the successful establishment of the new canopy oak generation, both in Białowieża and other forests of hemiboreal zone, further research is needed.
@article{bobiecOakQuercusRobur2011,
  title = {Oak ({{Quercus}} Robur {{L}}.) Regeneration as a Response to Natural Dynamics of Stands in {{European}} Hemiboreal Zone},
  author = {Bobiec, Andrzej and Jaszcz, Ewelina and Wojtunik, Karolina},
  date = {2011-02},
  journaltitle = {European Journal of Forest Research},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {785--797},
  issn = {1612-4669},
  doi = {10.1007/s10342-010-0471-3},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-010-0471-3},
  abstract = {The oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration intensity was assessed in the core area of the Białowieża National Park (BNP) in Poland with respect to the selected ecological factors. The emphasis was placed on the response of oak regeneration to disturbances, including the large-scale dieback of spruce stands. Defining their effect could help predicting the role of oak in naturally developing lowland forest ecosystems in the European hemiboreal zone. The results of the study challenge the opinion that the 'lime-oak-hornbeam forest' is a 'climax' community, confirming a very poor regeneration represented by only two saplings taller than 0.5~m per hectare. By contrast, in spruce-dominated communities, from 49 to 848 taller saplings per hectare were found. The occurrence of saplings was associated with discontinuous canopy of late seral stage of stands, as well as with large gaps. Most of the best quality grown-up oak saplings developed in the immediate neighbourhood of spruce logs. The results of the research indicate that 'lime-oak-hornbeam forest' (Tilio-Carpinetum) should be rather perceived as a transient community, evolved from relict, culturally modified, oak woodlands. Because spruce had become a dominating species only after abandoning in mid-1800s the historical regime of anthropogenic disturbances (involving frequent forest fires), the observed phenomena related to the disintegration of spruce stands had probably no precedent over the last 500~years. To confirm whether the massive decline of spruce stands will finally result in the successful establishment of the new canopy oak generation, both in Białowieża and other forests of hemiboreal zone, further research is needed.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-8850334,air-pollution,anthropogenic-changes,climate-change,disturbances,droughts,ecosystem-change,europe,forest-pests,forest-resources,forest-succession,picea-abies,poland,precipitation,quercus-robur,spruce-decline,system-catastrophe},
  number = {5}
}
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